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Table A1.

Comparison of three different signals for defining the step-to-step transition, applied to seven model prediction equations

Equation (equation number in parentheses)SignalSlope COffset DR2
vpre=Cvv̄+Dv(6) COM velocity 1.003±0.009 0.011±0.006 0.99 
 COM work rate 0.998±0.007 0.005±0.005 0.99 
 Vertical GRF 1.094±0.018 –0.017±0.012 0.98 
δvel=Cvels+Dvel(7) COM velocity 0.307±0.037 0.088±0.038 0.69 
 COM work rate 0.259±0.025 0.069±0.026 0.75 
 Vertical GRF –0.001±0.038 0.217±0.039 0.31 
δimp=Cimps+Dimp(8) COM velocity 0.477±0.021 –0.037±0.022 0.91 
 COM work rate 0.470±0.019 0.008±0.020 0.93 
 Vertical GRF 0.609±0.024 –0.067±0.025 0.93 
WCO=CCO(vpre·δvel)2+DCO(9) COM velocity 0.804±0.068 0.009±0.004 0.75 
 COM work rate 1.153±0.088 0.008±0.004 0.77 
 Vertical GRF 1.388±0.181 0.009±0.004 0.53 
WPO=CPO(vpre·δvel)2+DPO(10) COM velocity 0.507±0.064 0.017±0.004 0.62 
 COM work rate 0.740±0.089 0.017±0.004 0.60 
 Vertical GRF 0.688±0.147 0.019±0.003 0.40 
\(W_{\mathrm{CO}}=C_{\mathrm{CO}}^{{^\prime}}({\bar{v}}{\cdot}S)^{2}+D_{\mathrm{CO}}^{{^\prime}}\)
(11) 
COM velocity 0.128±0.008 0.008±0.003 0.82 
 COM work rate 0.129±0.008 0.008±0.003 0.81 
 Vertical GRF 0.086±0.009 0.010±0.003 0.65 
\(W_{\mathrm{PO}}=C_{\mathrm{PO}}^{{^\prime}}({\bar{v}}{\cdot}S)^{2}+D_{\mathrm{PO}}^{{^\prime}}\)
(12) 
COM velocity 0.081±0.009 0.017±0.003 0.66 
 COM work rate 0.082±0.009 0.017±0.004 0.63 
 Vertical GRF 0.046±0.008 0.019±0.003 0.49 
Equation (equation number in parentheses)SignalSlope COffset DR2
vpre=Cvv̄+Dv(6) COM velocity 1.003±0.009 0.011±0.006 0.99 
 COM work rate 0.998±0.007 0.005±0.005 0.99 
 Vertical GRF 1.094±0.018 –0.017±0.012 0.98 
δvel=Cvels+Dvel(7) COM velocity 0.307±0.037 0.088±0.038 0.69 
 COM work rate 0.259±0.025 0.069±0.026 0.75 
 Vertical GRF –0.001±0.038 0.217±0.039 0.31 
δimp=Cimps+Dimp(8) COM velocity 0.477±0.021 –0.037±0.022 0.91 
 COM work rate 0.470±0.019 0.008±0.020 0.93 
 Vertical GRF 0.609±0.024 –0.067±0.025 0.93 
WCO=CCO(vpre·δvel)2+DCO(9) COM velocity 0.804±0.068 0.009±0.004 0.75 
 COM work rate 1.153±0.088 0.008±0.004 0.77 
 Vertical GRF 1.388±0.181 0.009±0.004 0.53 
WPO=CPO(vpre·δvel)2+DPO(10) COM velocity 0.507±0.064 0.017±0.004 0.62 
 COM work rate 0.740±0.089 0.017±0.004 0.60 
 Vertical GRF 0.688±0.147 0.019±0.003 0.40 
\(W_{\mathrm{CO}}=C_{\mathrm{CO}}^{{^\prime}}({\bar{v}}{\cdot}S)^{2}+D_{\mathrm{CO}}^{{^\prime}}\)
(11) 
COM velocity 0.128±0.008 0.008±0.003 0.82 
 COM work rate 0.129±0.008 0.008±0.003 0.81 
 Vertical GRF 0.086±0.009 0.010±0.003 0.65 
\(W_{\mathrm{PO}}=C_{\mathrm{PO}}^{{^\prime}}({\bar{v}}{\cdot}S)^{2}+D_{\mathrm{PO}}^{{^\prime}}\)
(12) 
COM velocity 0.081±0.009 0.017±0.003 0.66 
 COM work rate 0.082±0.009 0.017±0.004 0.63 
 Vertical GRF 0.046±0.008 0.019±0.003 0.49 

Signals were based on center of mass (COM) velocity, the interval over which positive and negative work is performed on the COM, and vertical ground reaction force (GRF) indicating double support. The best-fit coefficients(C and D) are reported, along with R2values

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