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Table 3.

The effect of treatment on bill coloration in American goldfinches

Yellow
Black
Bill colorationHueChromaBrightnessBrightness
Overall F7,40=3.81, P=0.003 F7,40=5.67, P<0.001 F7,40=11.0, P<0.001 F7,40=5.54, P=0.001 
Carotenoids F=0.19, P=0.663 F=24.9, P<0.001 F=7.07, P=0.011 F=7.87, P=0.008 
Drug treatment F=12.0, P=0.001 F=0.14, P=0.709 F=0.02, P=0.892 F=0.00, P=0.978 
Food F=4.33, P=0.044 F=0.51, P=0.478 F=46.6, P<0.001 F=21.5, P<0.001 
Carotenoids×drug treatment F=1.52, P=0.225 F=3.13, P=0.085 F=0.29, P=0.594 F=1.40, P=0.244 
Carotenoids×food F=2.20, P=0.146 F=0.19, P=0.668 F=5.66, P=0.022 F=3.49, P=0.069 
Food×drug treatment F=0.88, P=0.354 F=0.18, P=0.673 F=3.98, P=0.053 F=0.04, P=0.840 
Carotenoids×food×drug treatment F=0.38, P=0.539 F=1.53, P=0.223 F=7.41, P=0.010 F=1.85, P=0.181 
Yellow
Black
Bill colorationHueChromaBrightnessBrightness
Overall F7,40=3.81, P=0.003 F7,40=5.67, P<0.001 F7,40=11.0, P<0.001 F7,40=5.54, P=0.001 
Carotenoids F=0.19, P=0.663 F=24.9, P<0.001 F=7.07, P=0.011 F=7.87, P=0.008 
Drug treatment F=12.0, P=0.001 F=0.14, P=0.709 F=0.02, P=0.892 F=0.00, P=0.978 
Food F=4.33, P=0.044 F=0.51, P=0.478 F=46.6, P<0.001 F=21.5, P<0.001 
Carotenoids×drug treatment F=1.52, P=0.225 F=3.13, P=0.085 F=0.29, P=0.594 F=1.40, P=0.244 
Carotenoids×food F=2.20, P=0.146 F=0.19, P=0.668 F=5.66, P=0.022 F=3.49, P=0.069 
Food×drug treatment F=0.88, P=0.354 F=0.18, P=0.673 F=3.98, P=0.053 F=0.04, P=0.840 
Carotenoids×food×drug treatment F=0.38, P=0.539 F=1.53, P=0.223 F=7.41, P=0.010 F=1.85, P=0.181 

Both independent treatments and their interactions are considered. The results of factorial ANOVA's are given including the overall F, d.f. and P for each tests and partial F and P values for each variable in significant tests. Bold font indicates significant results

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