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Table 1.

The experimental design used to test for the effects of multiple simultaneous environmental challenges on the production of bill and feather coloration in male American goldfinches

GroupCarotenoidsFoodDrug dose
High Ad libitum High 
High Restricted High 
Low Ad libitum High 
Low Restricted High 
High Ad libitum Low 
High Restricted Low 
Low Ad libitum Low 
Low Restricted Low 
GroupCarotenoidsFoodDrug dose
High Ad libitum High 
High Restricted High 
Low Ad libitum High 
Low Restricted High 
High Ad libitum Low 
High Restricted Low 
Low Ad libitum Low 
Low Restricted Low 

Male American goldfinches received either high or low levels of lutein and zeaxanthin in their drinking water, they had access either to ad libitum food or their food was removed for 6 h periods scattered throughout the week and they received either continuous (high drug dose) or pulsed doses (low drug dose) of sulfadimethoxine as protection against pathogens

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