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Table 2.

Results of two-way ANOVAs

Least-squares means
Least-squares means
Forelimb (N=31)Hindlimb (N=29)P-valueRough (N=32)Smooth (N=28)P-value
Peak Fshear (BW units) 1.13±0.10 1.40±0.10 0.3116 1.19±0.10 1.33±0.10 0.1891 
Median Fshear (BW units) 0.81±0.06 0.70±0.06 0.2633 0.68±0.06 0.83±0.06 0.1350 
Peak Fnormal (BW units) 0.55±0.02 0.32±0.02 0.0001 0.47±0.02 0.40±0.02 0.4273 
Median Fnormal (BW units) 0.43±0.02 0.23±0.02 <0.0001 0.37±0.01 0.30±0.02 0.2769 
Peak μreq 4.8±0.7 9.1±0.8 0.0358 6.8±0.7 7.3±0.8 0.6651 
Median μreq 2.1±0.3 3.7±0.3 0.0999 2.6±0.3 3.2±0.3 0.3162 
θ (deg.) 63±3 42±3 0.0393 55±3 50±3 0.5879 
Duty factor (% of stride duration) 66±1 64±1 0.0002 61±1 69±1 0.4161 
Least-squares means
Least-squares means
Forelimb (N=31)Hindlimb (N=29)P-valueRough (N=32)Smooth (N=28)P-value
Peak Fshear (BW units) 1.13±0.10 1.40±0.10 0.3116 1.19±0.10 1.33±0.10 0.1891 
Median Fshear (BW units) 0.81±0.06 0.70±0.06 0.2633 0.68±0.06 0.83±0.06 0.1350 
Peak Fnormal (BW units) 0.55±0.02 0.32±0.02 0.0001 0.47±0.02 0.40±0.02 0.4273 
Median Fnormal (BW units) 0.43±0.02 0.23±0.02 <0.0001 0.37±0.01 0.30±0.02 0.2769 
Peak μreq 4.8±0.7 9.1±0.8 0.0358 6.8±0.7 7.3±0.8 0.6651 
Median μreq 2.1±0.3 3.7±0.3 0.0999 2.6±0.3 3.2±0.3 0.3162 
θ (deg.) 63±3 42±3 0.0393 55±3 50±3 0.5879 
Duty factor (% of stride duration) 66±1 64±1 0.0002 61±1 69±1 0.4161 

Means ± s.e.m. are provided for each group. Interaction was never significant (P≥0.081). Abbreviations: Fshear, shear force; Fnormal, normal force; μreq, required coefficient of friction; θ, angle formed by normal force vector and a horizontal line passing through the long axis of the branch trackway (also see Fig. 1)

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