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Table 4.

Morphological measurements of dorsal skin layers and glands of each species examined

Thickness (μm)
Diameter (μm)
SpeciesTotal skinEpidermis*Stratum spongiosumStratum compactumGranular glandsMucous glands
R. utricularia 222.3 (59.2)a 33.8 (14.8) 54.8 (18.6)a,b 113.6 (34.5)a 60.8 (22.4)c 41.6 (4.7)b,c 
P. hypochondrialis 78.7 (23.6)c 17.0 (6.0) 45.8 (13.9)a,b 16.0 (7.7)c 104.6 (5.9)a 52.2 (6.8)a 
H. andersonii 100.3 (28.8)c 20.1 (7.9) 28.3 (10.9)a 51.8 (11.9)b 94.6 (21.5)a,b 44.4 (4.7)b,c 
H. femoralis 110.6 (25.3)b,c 23.9 (7.2) 37.3 (10.0)a,b 49.3 (12.0)b 70.6 (8.9)b 34.8 (6.6)c 
H. avivoca 115.0 (25.2)b,c 20.5 (5.3) 40.6 (11.5)a,b 53.9 (9.0)b 71.7 (11.3)b 34.8 (5.1)c 
H. gratiosa 146.8 (12.4)b,c 19.8 (3.2) 57.2 (8.5)b 69.8 (9.6)b 92.5 (29.0)a,b 47.9 (3.3)a,b 
H. squirella 115.3 (7.2)b,c 21.4 (3.4) 48.9 (6.3)a,b 45.0 (5.1)b 100.2 (14.9)a 37.3 (8.0)b,c 
H. cinerea 141.0 (28.4)b,c 24.7 (7.5) 52.7 (16.3)a,b 63.6 (11.2)b 100.2 (4.9)a,b 36.0 (4.6)b,c 
H. chrysoscelis 155.2 (23.4)b,c 18.5 (7.8) 64.5 (13.8)b 72.2 (11.3)b 94.3 (35.6)a,b 38.1 (7.4)b,c 
P values P<0.001 P=0.08 P=0.009 P<0.001 P=0.04 P<0.001 
Thickness (μm)
Diameter (μm)
SpeciesTotal skinEpidermis*Stratum spongiosumStratum compactumGranular glandsMucous glands
R. utricularia 222.3 (59.2)a 33.8 (14.8) 54.8 (18.6)a,b 113.6 (34.5)a 60.8 (22.4)c 41.6 (4.7)b,c 
P. hypochondrialis 78.7 (23.6)c 17.0 (6.0) 45.8 (13.9)a,b 16.0 (7.7)c 104.6 (5.9)a 52.2 (6.8)a 
H. andersonii 100.3 (28.8)c 20.1 (7.9) 28.3 (10.9)a 51.8 (11.9)b 94.6 (21.5)a,b 44.4 (4.7)b,c 
H. femoralis 110.6 (25.3)b,c 23.9 (7.2) 37.3 (10.0)a,b 49.3 (12.0)b 70.6 (8.9)b 34.8 (6.6)c 
H. avivoca 115.0 (25.2)b,c 20.5 (5.3) 40.6 (11.5)a,b 53.9 (9.0)b 71.7 (11.3)b 34.8 (5.1)c 
H. gratiosa 146.8 (12.4)b,c 19.8 (3.2) 57.2 (8.5)b 69.8 (9.6)b 92.5 (29.0)a,b 47.9 (3.3)a,b 
H. squirella 115.3 (7.2)b,c 21.4 (3.4) 48.9 (6.3)a,b 45.0 (5.1)b 100.2 (14.9)a 37.3 (8.0)b,c 
H. cinerea 141.0 (28.4)b,c 24.7 (7.5) 52.7 (16.3)a,b 63.6 (11.2)b 100.2 (4.9)a,b 36.0 (4.6)b,c 
H. chrysoscelis 155.2 (23.4)b,c 18.5 (7.8) 64.5 (13.8)b 72.2 (11.3)b 94.3 (35.6)a,b 38.1 (7.4)b,c 
P values P<0.001 P=0.08 P=0.009 P<0.001 P=0.04 P<0.001 

Values are reported as mean ± s.d. (within parentheses).

Different superscript letters indicate significant differences among means.

*

No significant difference for epidermis values.

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