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Table 1.

Summary of the families of arboreal frogs exhibiting low rates of cutaneous evaporative water loss (CWL) related to cutaneous lipids and wiping behaviors, with comparisons of aquatic frogs having high rates of CWL

HabitatFamilySpeciesSkin resistance to CWL (s cm−1)Surface-area-specific CWL (mg cm−2 h−1)Cutaneous lipidsWiping behaviors
Arboreal Hylidae Phyllomedusa sauvagei 206f 0.5f E, La +a 
  P. hypochondrialis 364f 0.3a E, La +a 
  P. iherengi 277f 0.3f E, La +a 
  P. pailona 336f 0.3f E, La +a 
  Litoria gracilenta 118e 0.7e Se 
  L. caerulea 1.8e 17e E, Lb +b 
  Hyla arenicolor 1.6e 28e 
 Rhacophoridae Polypedates maculatus 1.9d 7.7d E, Md +d 
  Chiromantis petersi 347e 0.2e c c 
  C. rufescens 404e 0.2e Se 
Semi-aquatic Ranidae Rana pipiens 1.6e 28e Gg,h 
  R. utricularia 26.9f 
Aquatic Pipidae Xenopus laevis 27.5f Gh 
  Free water surface 1.6e 44e   
HabitatFamilySpeciesSkin resistance to CWL (s cm−1)Surface-area-specific CWL (mg cm−2 h−1)Cutaneous lipidsWiping behaviors
Arboreal Hylidae Phyllomedusa sauvagei 206f 0.5f E, La +a 
  P. hypochondrialis 364f 0.3a E, La +a 
  P. iherengi 277f 0.3f E, La +a 
  P. pailona 336f 0.3f E, La +a 
  Litoria gracilenta 118e 0.7e Se 
  L. caerulea 1.8e 17e E, Lb +b 
  Hyla arenicolor 1.6e 28e 
 Rhacophoridae Polypedates maculatus 1.9d 7.7d E, Md +d 
  Chiromantis petersi 347e 0.2e c c 
  C. rufescens 404e 0.2e Se 
Semi-aquatic Ranidae Rana pipiens 1.6e 28e Gg,h 
  R. utricularia 26.9f 
Aquatic Pipidae Xenopus laevis 27.5f Gh 
  Free water surface 1.6e 44e   

Letters indicate the presence of lipids within the following: (E)extra-epidermal layer, (L) lipid glands, (M) mucous glands, (G) granular glands and (S) skin, where exact location of lipids is unknown.

+ presence, −, absence of lipids or behaviours; ? indicates values that have not been investigated.

aBlaylock et al.,1976; bChristian et al., 1988; cDrewes et al., 1977; dLillywhite et al.,1997; eWithers et al., 1984; fWygoda et al., 1984; gDapson et al.,1973; hThomas et al., 1993.

Note: in some references (a,d-f), measurements of CWL were made using different methods.

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