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Table 1.

Selected auxin carriers with established developmental roles

GeneRole in developmentKey references
Auxin influx carrier
 

 

 
AtAUX1 Root gravitropism, lateral root formation, phloem loading in leaves and unloading in roots, root hair development, phyllotaxis, hypocotyl phototropism Bainbridge et al., 2008; Bennett et al., 1996; Jones et al., 2009; Marchant et al., 2002; Stone et al., 2008; Swarup et al., 2001 
AtLAX1 Phyllotaxis Bainbridge et al., 2008 
AtLAX2 Phyllotaxis Bainbridge et al., 2008 
AtLAX3 Phyllotaxis, lateral roots emergence Bainbridge et al., 2008; Swarup et al., 2008 
PttLAX1-3 Vascular cambium development in wood-forming tissues Schrader et al., 2003 
PaLAX Root gravitropism Hoyerová et al., 2008 
MtLAX1-5 Early nodule development de Billy et al., 2001; Schnabel and Frugoli, 2004 
CsAUX1 Root gravitropism Kamada et al., 2003 
LaAUX1 Etiolated hypocotyl growth Oliveros-Valenzuela et al., 2007 
CgAUX1, CgLAX3 Actinorhizal nodule formation after Frankia infection Peret et al., 2007 
ZmAUX1
 
Root development
 
Hochholdinger et al., 2000
 
Auxin efflux carrier
 

 

 
AtPIN1 Vascular development, phyllotaxis, vein formation, embryogenesis, lateral organ formation Benková et al., 2003; Gälweiler et al., 1998; Reinhardt et al.,2003; Scarpella et al., 2006; Weijers et al., 2005 
AtPIN2 (EIR1, AGR1, WAV6Root gravitropism, lateral organ development Benková et al., 2003; Chen et al., 1998; Luschnig et al., 1998;Müller et al., 1998; Utsuno et al., 1998 
AtPIN3 Shoot and root gravitropism and phototropism, lateral organ development Benková et al., 2003; Friml et al., 2002b 
AtPIN4 Embryogenesis, root patterning Benková et al., 2003; Friml et al., 2002a; Friml et al., 2003b; Weijers et al., 2005 
AtPIN5 Regulation of the intracellular auxin homeostasis and metabolism Mravec et al., 2009 
AtPIN6 Transport activity demonstrated in tobacco cells, in planta function unknown Benková et al., 2003; Petrášek et al., 2006 
AtPIN7 Embryogenesis, root development Benková et al., 2003; Friml et al., 2003b; Blilou et al., 2005 
PttPIN1-3 Vascular cambium development in wood-forming tissues Schrader et al., 2003 
CsPIN1 Gravitropism Kamada et al., 2003 
LaPIN1,3 Etiolated hypocotyl growth Oliveros-Valenzuela et al., 2007 
ZmPIN1 Inflorescence branching Carraro et al., 2006 
BjPIN1-3 Differential expression in various tissues, vascular development Ni et al., 2002a; Ni et al., 2002b 
OsPIN1 Adventitious root emergence Xu et al., 2005 
AtPGP1 (ABCB1Embryogenesis, lateral root organogenesis, hypocotyl and plant growth Geisler et al., 2005; Lin and Wang, 2005; Mravec et al., 2008; Noh et al.,2001 
ZmPGP1 (br2; brachytic) SbPGP1 (dw3; dwarfElongation growth Multani et al., 2003 
AtABCB19 (MDR1, MDR11, PGP19Embryogenesis, lateral root formation, root gravitropism, hypocotyl phototropism and gravitropism, leaf shape Lewis et al., 2007; Mravec et al., 2008; Nagashima et al., 2008a; Nagashima et al., 2008b; Noh et al., 2001; Petrášek et al., 2006; Wu et al.,2007 
AtABCB4 (MDR4, PGP4Basipetal transport in root epidermis, lateral root and root hair development,gravitropism Cho et al., 2007; Lewis et al., 2007; Santelia et al., 2005; Terasaka et al.,2005; Wu et al., 2007 
ZmTM20 Vasculature development Jahrmann et al., 2005; Stiefel et al., 1999 
GeneRole in developmentKey references
Auxin influx carrier
 

 

 
AtAUX1 Root gravitropism, lateral root formation, phloem loading in leaves and unloading in roots, root hair development, phyllotaxis, hypocotyl phototropism Bainbridge et al., 2008; Bennett et al., 1996; Jones et al., 2009; Marchant et al., 2002; Stone et al., 2008; Swarup et al., 2001 
AtLAX1 Phyllotaxis Bainbridge et al., 2008 
AtLAX2 Phyllotaxis Bainbridge et al., 2008 
AtLAX3 Phyllotaxis, lateral roots emergence Bainbridge et al., 2008; Swarup et al., 2008 
PttLAX1-3 Vascular cambium development in wood-forming tissues Schrader et al., 2003 
PaLAX Root gravitropism Hoyerová et al., 2008 
MtLAX1-5 Early nodule development de Billy et al., 2001; Schnabel and Frugoli, 2004 
CsAUX1 Root gravitropism Kamada et al., 2003 
LaAUX1 Etiolated hypocotyl growth Oliveros-Valenzuela et al., 2007 
CgAUX1, CgLAX3 Actinorhizal nodule formation after Frankia infection Peret et al., 2007 
ZmAUX1
 
Root development
 
Hochholdinger et al., 2000
 
Auxin efflux carrier
 

 

 
AtPIN1 Vascular development, phyllotaxis, vein formation, embryogenesis, lateral organ formation Benková et al., 2003; Gälweiler et al., 1998; Reinhardt et al.,2003; Scarpella et al., 2006; Weijers et al., 2005 
AtPIN2 (EIR1, AGR1, WAV6Root gravitropism, lateral organ development Benková et al., 2003; Chen et al., 1998; Luschnig et al., 1998;Müller et al., 1998; Utsuno et al., 1998 
AtPIN3 Shoot and root gravitropism and phototropism, lateral organ development Benková et al., 2003; Friml et al., 2002b 
AtPIN4 Embryogenesis, root patterning Benková et al., 2003; Friml et al., 2002a; Friml et al., 2003b; Weijers et al., 2005 
AtPIN5 Regulation of the intracellular auxin homeostasis and metabolism Mravec et al., 2009 
AtPIN6 Transport activity demonstrated in tobacco cells, in planta function unknown Benková et al., 2003; Petrášek et al., 2006 
AtPIN7 Embryogenesis, root development Benková et al., 2003; Friml et al., 2003b; Blilou et al., 2005 
PttPIN1-3 Vascular cambium development in wood-forming tissues Schrader et al., 2003 
CsPIN1 Gravitropism Kamada et al., 2003 
LaPIN1,3 Etiolated hypocotyl growth Oliveros-Valenzuela et al., 2007 
ZmPIN1 Inflorescence branching Carraro et al., 2006 
BjPIN1-3 Differential expression in various tissues, vascular development Ni et al., 2002a; Ni et al., 2002b 
OsPIN1 Adventitious root emergence Xu et al., 2005 
AtPGP1 (ABCB1Embryogenesis, lateral root organogenesis, hypocotyl and plant growth Geisler et al., 2005; Lin and Wang, 2005; Mravec et al., 2008; Noh et al.,2001 
ZmPGP1 (br2; brachytic) SbPGP1 (dw3; dwarfElongation growth Multani et al., 2003 
AtABCB19 (MDR1, MDR11, PGP19Embryogenesis, lateral root formation, root gravitropism, hypocotyl phototropism and gravitropism, leaf shape Lewis et al., 2007; Mravec et al., 2008; Nagashima et al., 2008a; Nagashima et al., 2008b; Noh et al., 2001; Petrášek et al., 2006; Wu et al.,2007 
AtABCB4 (MDR4, PGP4Basipetal transport in root epidermis, lateral root and root hair development,gravitropism Cho et al., 2007; Lewis et al., 2007; Santelia et al., 2005; Terasaka et al.,2005; Wu et al., 2007 
ZmTM20 Vasculature development Jahrmann et al., 2005; Stiefel et al., 1999 

At, Arabidopsis thaliana; Bj, Brassica juncea; Cg, Casuarina glauca;Cs, Cucumis sativus; La, Lupinus albus; Mt, Medicago truncatula; Os, Oryza sativa; Pa, Prunus avium; Ptt, Populus tremula x tremuloides; Sb, Sorghum bicolor; Zm, Zea mays.

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