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Table 1.

Summary of the strain and timing of activation of the dl1muscles recorded during flight

MothWing-beat frequency (Hz)Phase of activationLop/LrStrain amplitude (ΔL/Lo)Shortening duration (%)f2 (% of f1)N
25.6±0.8 0.45±0.02 0.99 0.055±0.003 46±2 5.5 59 
22.3±0.8 0.49±0.02 0.95 0.125±0.005 60±4 29 106 
23.5±0.4 0.48±0.01 0.99 0.065±0.001 44±1 46 93 
23.2±0.8 0.56±0.03 0.96 0.131±0.005 54±1 12 92 
22.4±0.6 0.50±0.03 0.97 0.040±0.003 47±3 13 88 
21.1±0.5 0.45±0.01 1.00 0.080±0.004 41±2 42 105 
Mean 23.0±1.5 0.49±0.04 0.98±0.02 0.090±0.031 45±5 25±17  
MothWing-beat frequency (Hz)Phase of activationLop/LrStrain amplitude (ΔL/Lo)Shortening duration (%)f2 (% of f1)N
25.6±0.8 0.45±0.02 0.99 0.055±0.003 46±2 5.5 59 
22.3±0.8 0.49±0.02 0.95 0.125±0.005 60±4 29 106 
23.5±0.4 0.48±0.01 0.99 0.065±0.001 44±1 46 93 
23.2±0.8 0.56±0.03 0.96 0.131±0.005 54±1 12 92 
22.4±0.6 0.50±0.03 0.97 0.040±0.003 47±3 13 88 
21.1±0.5 0.45±0.01 1.00 0.080±0.004 41±2 42 105 
Mean 23.0±1.5 0.49±0.04 0.98±0.02 0.090±0.031 45±5 25±17  

All values were calculated for each wing stroke cycle and averaged for the total number (N) of complete cycles within each flight bout. Phase of activation is the time from the start of muscle lengthening to the peak of the spike in the EMG record, divided by the cycle period. Lopis the operational muscle length, defined as the midpoint between the maximum and minimum length in each cycle. Lr is the rest length of the dl1muscles. ΔL is the difference between the maximum and minimum length in each cycle. Shortening duration is the duration of muscle shortening expressed as a percentage of each cycle period. The amplitude of the 2nd harmonic of the Fourier-transformed strain record is expressed as a percentage (f2) of the amplitude of the 1st harmonic. Values are given as means ± s.d.

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