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Table 5.

F values from three-way ANOVAs performed separately on each kinematic variable that indicates maximum and minimum relative linear positions and displacements in the x, y and z dimensions relative to the hip during the stride cycle for C. calyptratus and D. dorsalis moving on a treadmill

Anatomical locationXminXmaxΔXYminYmaxΔYZminZmaxΔZ
Incline (2,12)          
Knee 16.3*** 1.4 17.4*** 29.5*** 22.5*** 3.0 3.5 3.2 1.1 
Ankle 17.5*** 7.4** 1.0 38.8*** 7.1** 23.0*** 3.5 0.4 1.9 
Metatarsal 13.9*** 6.5* 0.7 26.9*** 16.0*** 3.7 13.4*** 1.9 4.7* 
Toetip 7.1** 4.7 0.5 22.7*** 13.1*** 3.4 3.7 1.6 0.3 
Species (1,6)          
Knee 0.4 0.6 1.8 26.2** 49.8*** 0.4 182.1*** 16.9** 6.2* 
Ankle 7.2* 456.4*** 117.0*** 5.6 1.7 3.8 6.3* 1.3 
Metatarsal 7.9* 223.3*** 49.6*** 0.2 0.4 11.3* 1.2 1.1 
Toetip 205.8*** 27.7** 8.0* 17.3** 0.8 12.1* 1.5 1.7 
Incline×Species (2,12)          
Knee 3.0 6.0* 1.9 6.5* 7.3** 3.1 6.5* 0.6 3.2 
Ankle 2.8 1.1 3.0 13.9*** 1.2 28.7*** 1.4 0.5 2.7 
Metatarsal 0.1 0.4 0.3 12.1** 1.7 2.0 5.4* 3.6 6.3* 
Toetip 0.1 0.6 0.8 9.6** 1.2 0.8 1.9 3.9* 2.3 
Anatomical locationXminXmaxΔXYminYmaxΔYZminZmaxΔZ
Incline (2,12)          
Knee 16.3*** 1.4 17.4*** 29.5*** 22.5*** 3.0 3.5 3.2 1.1 
Ankle 17.5*** 7.4** 1.0 38.8*** 7.1** 23.0*** 3.5 0.4 1.9 
Metatarsal 13.9*** 6.5* 0.7 26.9*** 16.0*** 3.7 13.4*** 1.9 4.7* 
Toetip 7.1** 4.7 0.5 22.7*** 13.1*** 3.4 3.7 1.6 0.3 
Species (1,6)          
Knee 0.4 0.6 1.8 26.2** 49.8*** 0.4 182.1*** 16.9** 6.2* 
Ankle 7.2* 456.4*** 117.0*** 5.6 1.7 3.8 6.3* 1.3 
Metatarsal 7.9* 223.3*** 49.6*** 0.2 0.4 11.3* 1.2 1.1 
Toetip 205.8*** 27.7** 8.0* 17.3** 0.8 12.1* 1.5 1.7 
Incline×Species (2,12)          
Knee 3.0 6.0* 1.9 6.5* 7.3** 3.1 6.5* 0.6 3.2 
Ankle 2.8 1.1 3.0 13.9*** 1.2 28.7*** 1.4 0.5 2.7 
Metatarsal 0.1 0.4 0.3 12.1** 1.7 2.0 5.4* 3.6 6.3* 
Toetip 0.1 0.6 0.8 9.6** 1.2 0.8 1.9 3.9* 2.3 

*P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.

ANOVA effects and degrees of freedom (in parentheses) are given above each group of rows indicating different locations within the hindlimb.

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