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Table 3.

F values from three-way ANOVAs performed separately on each angular kinematic variable

C. calyptratus + D. dorsalis
C. calyptratus only
Dependent variableSpecies d.f.=1,6Incline d.f.=2,12Species×Incline d.f.=2,12Incline d.f.=2,6Surface d.f.=1,3Incline×Surface d.f.=2,6
Knee (ff) 90.2*** 3.7 3.4 1.4 0.9 3.2 
Knee (es) 41.2*** 7.5** 3.2 4.0 7.5 6.2* 
Ankle (ff) 218.2*** 1.1 1.2 0.9 12.6* 0.2 
Ankle (es) 9.1* 0.3 0.1 0.1 5.9 1.8 
Toe orientation (ff) 17.4** 2.3 0.2    
Pelvic rotation 21.0** 1.8 0.6 0.5 0.5 1.0 
Max. femur retraction 6.4* 3.7 3.5 9.9 4.5 
Min. femur retraction 3.2 3.1 2.3 6.2* 8.6 0.7 
Retraction excursion 2.9 2.9 5.4* 2.1 11.7* 9.0* 
Max. femur depression 2.9 17.5*** 2.1 11.7** 6.1 2.2 
Min. femur depression 316.1*** 7.2** 8.1** 0.8 0.1 0.5 
Depression excursion 16.9** 2.8 3.4 4.8 3.5 1.9 
Max. femur rotation 10.4* 12.1** 3.0 2.0 0.3 1.0 
Min. femur rotation 78.3*** 7.3** 2.1 5.7* 76.5** 0.9 
Rotation excursion 8.1* 21.1*** 6.7* 1.1 9.8 2.3 
C. calyptratus + D. dorsalis
C. calyptratus only
Dependent variableSpecies d.f.=1,6Incline d.f.=2,12Species×Incline d.f.=2,12Incline d.f.=2,6Surface d.f.=1,3Incline×Surface d.f.=2,6
Knee (ff) 90.2*** 3.7 3.4 1.4 0.9 3.2 
Knee (es) 41.2*** 7.5** 3.2 4.0 7.5 6.2* 
Ankle (ff) 218.2*** 1.1 1.2 0.9 12.6* 0.2 
Ankle (es) 9.1* 0.3 0.1 0.1 5.9 1.8 
Toe orientation (ff) 17.4** 2.3 0.2    
Pelvic rotation 21.0** 1.8 0.6 0.5 0.5 1.0 
Max. femur retraction 6.4* 3.7 3.5 9.9 4.5 
Min. femur retraction 3.2 3.1 2.3 6.2* 8.6 0.7 
Retraction excursion 2.9 2.9 5.4* 2.1 11.7* 9.0* 
Max. femur depression 2.9 17.5*** 2.1 11.7** 6.1 2.2 
Min. femur depression 316.1*** 7.2** 8.1** 0.8 0.1 0.5 
Depression excursion 16.9** 2.8 3.4 4.8 3.5 1.9 
Max. femur rotation 10.4* 12.1** 3.0 2.0 0.3 1.0 
Min. femur rotation 78.3*** 7.3** 2.1 5.7* 76.5** 0.9 
Rotation excursion 8.1* 21.1*** 6.7* 1.1 9.8 2.3 

*P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.

Main effects and interaction terms are listed above each column.

d.f., degrees of freedom; ff, footfall; es, end stance; Max, maximum; Min,minimum.

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