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Table 1.

The muscles used in this study and their proposed actions

MuscleProposed action based on anatomy
Caudofemoralis (CF) Knee flexion; femur retraction and rotation 
Iliofibularis (IF) Knee flexion; limb elevation 
Iliotibialis (IT) Knee extension; femur retraction; limb elevation 
Flexor tibialis externus (FTE) Knee flexion; plantar flexion; femur retraction 
Puboischiotibialis (PIT) Knee flexion; femur depression 
Gastrocnemius (G) Plantar flexion 
Tibialis anterior (TA) Plantar flexion; digit opener 
Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) Dorsiflexion; digit opener 
Peroneus (P) Plantar flexion; digit opener 
MuscleProposed action based on anatomy
Caudofemoralis (CF) Knee flexion; femur retraction and rotation 
Iliofibularis (IF) Knee flexion; limb elevation 
Iliotibialis (IT) Knee extension; femur retraction; limb elevation 
Flexor tibialis externus (FTE) Knee flexion; plantar flexion; femur retraction 
Puboischiotibialis (PIT) Knee flexion; femur depression 
Gastrocnemius (G) Plantar flexion 
Tibialis anterior (TA) Plantar flexion; digit opener 
Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) Dorsiflexion; digit opener 
Peroneus (P) Plantar flexion; digit opener 
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