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Table 2.

Responses of adult A. variegatum to entrained rumen odour and to individual chemostimulants of the rumen fluid odour and their mixtures

TreatmentTicks tested (N)Source dose% Attraction1% Change in speed1
Entrained rumen fluid odour 17 1/10 dilution +42***,a +4e,f 
Single components     
   Butanoic acid 16 10 ng +34***,a,b –34**,f,g 
   Isobutanoic acid 29 10 ng–1 μg +32***,a,b –9*,e,f 
   4-Methylphenol 11 10 ng +24**,b,c –2e 
   3-Methylindole 20 10 ng +12*,b,c –7e,f 
   Acetic acid 14 1 μg +15*,b,c +3e 
   Propanoic acid 20 10 ng +22***,a,b –12***,f 
Mixtures     
   Butanoic acid:isobutanoic acid:4-methylphenol:3-methylindole 18 1 μg:100 ng:10 ng:10 ng +25***,a,b –3e,f 
   Butanoic acid:isobutanoic acid:4-methylphenol:3-methylindole 11 1 μg:10 ng:10 ng:10 ng +3c –5e,f 
   Butanoic acid:isobutanoic acid:4-methylphenol:3-methylindole 20 10 ng:10 ng:10 ng:10 ng +2c +6e 
   2Methane 13 70 ppm +1c –6e,f 
TreatmentTicks tested (N)Source dose% Attraction1% Change in speed1
Entrained rumen fluid odour 17 1/10 dilution +42***,a +4e,f 
Single components     
   Butanoic acid 16 10 ng +34***,a,b –34**,f,g 
   Isobutanoic acid 29 10 ng–1 μg +32***,a,b –9*,e,f 
   4-Methylphenol 11 10 ng +24**,b,c –2e 
   3-Methylindole 20 10 ng +12*,b,c –7e,f 
   Acetic acid 14 1 μg +15*,b,c +3e 
   Propanoic acid 20 10 ng +22***,a,b –12***,f 
Mixtures     
   Butanoic acid:isobutanoic acid:4-methylphenol:3-methylindole 18 1 μg:100 ng:10 ng:10 ng +25***,a,b –3e,f 
   Butanoic acid:isobutanoic acid:4-methylphenol:3-methylindole 11 1 μg:10 ng:10 ng:10 ng +3c –5e,f 
   Butanoic acid:isobutanoic acid:4-methylphenol:3-methylindole 20 10 ng:10 ng:10 ng:10 ng +2c +6e 
   2Methane 13 70 ppm +1c –6e,f 
1

Median % change compared with control

*

P<0.05

**

P<0.01

***

P<0.001; Wilcoxon signed rank test. Treatments sharing the same letter are not significantly different; (P>0.05;Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test

2

Estimated concentration in the air stream

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