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Table 1.

Summary of feeding mean kinematic variables for Kogia, pooled Tursiops, Tursiops open gape approach and Tursiops closed gape approach

Tursiops
Kinematic variableKogiaPooledOpenClosed
RSI -0.67±0.29 0.94±0.11 0.95±0.08 0.93±0.12 
Feeding cycle duration (ms) 470±139 863±337 1211±207 662±207 
Phase I duration (ms) 39±65 59±110 20±60 83±125 
Phase II duration (ms) 195±115 493±276 756±277 340±115 
Phase III duration (ms) 36±75 45±88 77±127 26±51 
Phase IV duration (ms) 200±85 266±176 359±248 212±86 
Maximum gape angle (°) 40±19 25±6.60 25±7.33 25±6.34 
Max. opening gape angle velocity (deg. s-1293±261 84±56 40±18 109±55 
Max. gape (cm) 8.54±3.60 12±3.29 11±3.51 12±3.24 
Time to max. gape (s) 282±147 564±251 782±253 438±142 
Max. closing gape angle velocity (deg. s-1223±121 120±54 108±49 127±57 
Max. gular depression (cm) 2.25±1.81 4.75±2.57 4.88±2.32 4.61±2.91 
Time to max. gular depression (ms) 283±153 623±208 695±217 552±181 
Max. gular retraction (cm) 2.67±2.35 5.57±3.07 1.79±0.11 4.11±3.35 
Time to max. gular retraction (ms) 260±69 397±197 261±154 438±196 
Max. food velocity (cm s-141±23 n/a n/a n/a 
Max. hydraulic jetting distance (cm) 2.59±1.13 n/a n/a n/a 
Max. hydraulic jetting velocity (cm s-122±5.90 n/a n/a n/a 
Max. tongue retraction (cm) n/a 4.65±3.73 n/a 5.13±3.76 
Time to max. tongue retraction (ms) n/a 167±57 n/a 148±20 
Tursiops
Kinematic variableKogiaPooledOpenClosed
RSI -0.67±0.29 0.94±0.11 0.95±0.08 0.93±0.12 
Feeding cycle duration (ms) 470±139 863±337 1211±207 662±207 
Phase I duration (ms) 39±65 59±110 20±60 83±125 
Phase II duration (ms) 195±115 493±276 756±277 340±115 
Phase III duration (ms) 36±75 45±88 77±127 26±51 
Phase IV duration (ms) 200±85 266±176 359±248 212±86 
Maximum gape angle (°) 40±19 25±6.60 25±7.33 25±6.34 
Max. opening gape angle velocity (deg. s-1293±261 84±56 40±18 109±55 
Max. gape (cm) 8.54±3.60 12±3.29 11±3.51 12±3.24 
Time to max. gape (s) 282±147 564±251 782±253 438±142 
Max. closing gape angle velocity (deg. s-1223±121 120±54 108±49 127±57 
Max. gular depression (cm) 2.25±1.81 4.75±2.57 4.88±2.32 4.61±2.91 
Time to max. gular depression (ms) 283±153 623±208 695±217 552±181 
Max. gular retraction (cm) 2.67±2.35 5.57±3.07 1.79±0.11 4.11±3.35 
Time to max. gular retraction (ms) 260±69 397±197 261±154 438±196 
Max. food velocity (cm s-141±23 n/a n/a n/a 
Max. hydraulic jetting distance (cm) 2.59±1.13 n/a n/a n/a 
Max. hydraulic jetting velocity (cm s-122±5.90 n/a n/a n/a 
Max. tongue retraction (cm) n/a 4.65±3.73 n/a 5.13±3.76 
Time to max. tongue retraction (ms) n/a 167±57 n/a 148±20 

RSI, Ram-Suction Index.

Values are means ± s.d.; n/a, not applicable. N=16 (Kogia), 30 (Tursiops).

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