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Table 1.

Comparison of literature values documenting pinniped cardiac output() and stroke volume(Vs) during pre-dive and diving state

SpeciesMass (kg)Vs, rest (ml)Q̇, rest (l min-1)Stahl's prediction* (ml min-1)Vs, dive (ml)Q̇, dive (l min-1)MethodReference
Sea lion ∼30 – – 2.9 No change 75% decline Doppler flowmeter Elsner et al. (1964) 
Harbor seal 15–27 31.2±16.0 5.18±2.33 1.7–2.7 39.61±27.2 0.62±0.35 Dye dilution Murdaugh et al. (1966) 
Grey seal ∼39 59.85 7.9 3.6 60 0.6 Microspheres Blix et al. (1976) 
Harbor seal 35–52 128 11.5 4.14 83 ∼2 Thermodilution Sinnett et al. (1978) 
Weddell seal 334–496 826.21±317.64 39.79±10.21 20.7–28.5 365.87±178.38 5.62±3.42 Thermodilution, microspheres Zapol et al. (1979) 
Harbor/grey seal 30–40 70 9.7 2.9–3.7 40–70 0.6–0.8 Microspheres Blix et al. (1983) 
Harbor seal 28–39 100.2±15.2 9.14±2.17 2.8–3.6 30–50 2.5–5.6 Thermodilution Ponganis et al. (1990) 
Elephant seal 99–105 104.9±6.43 6.53±1.02 7.7–8.1 126.7±6.97 4.01±0.39 MRI phase contrast Present study 
SpeciesMass (kg)Vs, rest (ml)Q̇, rest (l min-1)Stahl's prediction* (ml min-1)Vs, dive (ml)Q̇, dive (l min-1)MethodReference
Sea lion ∼30 – – 2.9 No change 75% decline Doppler flowmeter Elsner et al. (1964) 
Harbor seal 15–27 31.2±16.0 5.18±2.33 1.7–2.7 39.61±27.2 0.62±0.35 Dye dilution Murdaugh et al. (1966) 
Grey seal ∼39 59.85 7.9 3.6 60 0.6 Microspheres Blix et al. (1976) 
Harbor seal 35–52 128 11.5 4.14 83 ∼2 Thermodilution Sinnett et al. (1978) 
Weddell seal 334–496 826.21±317.64 39.79±10.21 20.7–28.5 365.87±178.38 5.62±3.42 Thermodilution, microspheres Zapol et al. (1979) 
Harbor/grey seal 30–40 70 9.7 2.9–3.7 40–70 0.6–0.8 Microspheres Blix et al. (1983) 
Harbor seal 28–39 100.2±15.2 9.14±2.17 2.8–3.6 30–50 2.5–5.6 Thermodilution Ponganis et al. (1990) 
Elephant seal 99–105 104.9±6.43 6.53±1.02 7.7–8.1 126.7±6.97 4.01±0.39 MRI phase contrast Present study 
*

Stahl's power law prediction equation: `resting'=187(body mass)0.81(Stahl, 1967)

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