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Table 1.

Examples of mutations associated with Drosophila dorsal closure or C. elegans ventral enclosure*

Dorsal closureVentral enclosureReferences
Architectural components    
   Cytoskeletal proteins zipper (non-muscle myosin) nmy-2 (non-muscle myosin) Young et al., 1993; Shelton et al., 1999  
  Arp2/3 complex Sawa et al., 2003  
  WASP Sawa et al., 2003  
   Membrane proteins coracle (protein 4.1 homologue)  Fehon et al., 1994  
 Yurt (protein 4.1 homologue)  Hoover and Bryant, 2002  
   Cell junction proteins shotgun (E-cadherin) hmr-1 (E-cadherin) Tepass et al., 2001; Costa et al.,1998  
 armadillo (β-catenin) hmp-2 (β-catenin) Grevengoed et al., 2001; Costa et al., 1998  
 fasciclinIII hmp-1 (α-catenin) Woods et al., 1997; Costa et al., 1998  
  jac-1 (p120 catenin) Pettitt et al., 2003  
   Integrins myospheroid (β subunit)  Brown, 1994  
 scab (α subunit)  Stark et al., 1997  
   Motors  zen-4 (kinesin-like) Powers et al., 1998; Raich et al., 1998  
   Extracellular matrix Type IV collagen  Borchiellini et al., 1996  
 pericardin (type IV collagen)  Chartier et al., 2002  
Signalling pathways    
   DPP (TGFβ) decapentaplegic (TGFβ)  Padgett et al., 1987  
 thick veins (TGFβ type I receptor)  Affolter et al., 1994  
 punt (TGFβ type II receptor)  McEwen et al., 2000  
 mothers against dpp (R-smad)  Hudson et al., 1998  
 medea (co-smad)  Wisotzkey et al., 1998  
   Wingless armadillo (β-catenin) apr-1 (APC homologue) McEwen et al., 2000; Hoier et al., 2000  
   JNK hemipterous (Jun kinase kinase)  Glise et al., 1995  
 basket (Jun kinase)  Riesgo-Escovar et al., 1996  
 Jun (JUN)  Glise and Noselli, 1997; Hou et al., 1997  
 kayak (FOS)  Zeitlinger et al., 1997  
 misshapen (Ste20 kinase)  Su et al., 1998  
 puckered (phosphatase)  Martin-Blanco et al., 1998  
 canoe (PDZ protein)  Takahashi et al., 1998  
 Sac1 (lipid phosphatase)  Wei et al., 2003  
   RAS anterior open/yan (ETS domain)  Riesgo-Escovar and Hafen,1997  
   Notch Notch (transmembrane receptor)  Zecchini et al., 1999  
   Ephrin/Eph  vab-1 (Eph receptor) George et al., 1998  
  vab-2 (ephrin) Chin-Sang et al., 1999  
   Other ZO-1 (PDZ/guanylate kinase) mab-20 (semaphorin) Takahashi et al., 1998; Roy et al., 2000  
 ribbon (BTB/POZ) xrn-1 (5'-3' exoribonuclease) Blake et al., 1998; Newbury and Woollard, 2004  
 discs large (PDZ/guanylate kinase)  Perrimon, 1988  
Rho GTPases/effectors    
   GTPases Rho1, Cdc42, Rac1/Rac2/mtl  Harden et al., 1999; Magie et al., 1999; Magie et al., 2002  
   Genova et al., 2000; Hakeda-Suzuki et al., 2002  
   Effectors myoblast city (DOCK180)  Erickson et al., 1997; Nolan et al., 1998  
 PKN  Lu and Settleman, 1999  
 DPAK  Harden et al., 1996  
Other disembodied (ecdysteroid biosynthesis)  Chavez et al., 2000  
 Nmt (N-myristoyltransferase)  Ntwasa et al., 2001  
Dorsal closureVentral enclosureReferences
Architectural components    
   Cytoskeletal proteins zipper (non-muscle myosin) nmy-2 (non-muscle myosin) Young et al., 1993; Shelton et al., 1999  
  Arp2/3 complex Sawa et al., 2003  
  WASP Sawa et al., 2003  
   Membrane proteins coracle (protein 4.1 homologue)  Fehon et al., 1994  
 Yurt (protein 4.1 homologue)  Hoover and Bryant, 2002  
   Cell junction proteins shotgun (E-cadherin) hmr-1 (E-cadherin) Tepass et al., 2001; Costa et al.,1998  
 armadillo (β-catenin) hmp-2 (β-catenin) Grevengoed et al., 2001; Costa et al., 1998  
 fasciclinIII hmp-1 (α-catenin) Woods et al., 1997; Costa et al., 1998  
  jac-1 (p120 catenin) Pettitt et al., 2003  
   Integrins myospheroid (β subunit)  Brown, 1994  
 scab (α subunit)  Stark et al., 1997  
   Motors  zen-4 (kinesin-like) Powers et al., 1998; Raich et al., 1998  
   Extracellular matrix Type IV collagen  Borchiellini et al., 1996  
 pericardin (type IV collagen)  Chartier et al., 2002  
Signalling pathways    
   DPP (TGFβ) decapentaplegic (TGFβ)  Padgett et al., 1987  
 thick veins (TGFβ type I receptor)  Affolter et al., 1994  
 punt (TGFβ type II receptor)  McEwen et al., 2000  
 mothers against dpp (R-smad)  Hudson et al., 1998  
 medea (co-smad)  Wisotzkey et al., 1998  
   Wingless armadillo (β-catenin) apr-1 (APC homologue) McEwen et al., 2000; Hoier et al., 2000  
   JNK hemipterous (Jun kinase kinase)  Glise et al., 1995  
 basket (Jun kinase)  Riesgo-Escovar et al., 1996  
 Jun (JUN)  Glise and Noselli, 1997; Hou et al., 1997  
 kayak (FOS)  Zeitlinger et al., 1997  
 misshapen (Ste20 kinase)  Su et al., 1998  
 puckered (phosphatase)  Martin-Blanco et al., 1998  
 canoe (PDZ protein)  Takahashi et al., 1998  
 Sac1 (lipid phosphatase)  Wei et al., 2003  
   RAS anterior open/yan (ETS domain)  Riesgo-Escovar and Hafen,1997  
   Notch Notch (transmembrane receptor)  Zecchini et al., 1999  
   Ephrin/Eph  vab-1 (Eph receptor) George et al., 1998  
  vab-2 (ephrin) Chin-Sang et al., 1999  
   Other ZO-1 (PDZ/guanylate kinase) mab-20 (semaphorin) Takahashi et al., 1998; Roy et al., 2000  
 ribbon (BTB/POZ) xrn-1 (5'-3' exoribonuclease) Blake et al., 1998; Newbury and Woollard, 2004  
 discs large (PDZ/guanylate kinase)  Perrimon, 1988  
Rho GTPases/effectors    
   GTPases Rho1, Cdc42, Rac1/Rac2/mtl  Harden et al., 1999; Magie et al., 1999; Magie et al., 2002  
   Genova et al., 2000; Hakeda-Suzuki et al., 2002  
   Effectors myoblast city (DOCK180)  Erickson et al., 1997; Nolan et al., 1998  
 PKN  Lu and Settleman, 1999  
 DPAK  Harden et al., 1996  
Other disembodied (ecdysteroid biosynthesis)  Chavez et al., 2000  
 Nmt (N-myristoyltransferase)  Ntwasa et al., 2001  
*

For additional examples and recent reviews see: Glise and Noselli, 1997; Stronach and Perrimon, 1999; Noselli and Agnes, 1999; Harden, 2002; Simske and Hardin, 2001; Chin-Sang and Chisholm,2000 

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