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Table 1.

Morphological and hydrodynamic parameters measured for individual Chondrus

Low velocity model
High velocity model
AlgaHeight (cm)Aplan (cm2)Arep (cm2)Vogel's ECD,plan@ 0.5 m s-1Predicted force (N) (% error)Vogel's ECD,plan@ 1.9 m s-1Predicted force (N) (% error)Predicted FDR (N) (% error)
8.26 20.16 13.50 -0.42 0.51 1.42 (61.67) -0.55 0.24 0.62 (-29.33) 0.92 (4.99) 
9.44 24.80 17.47 -0.72 0.46 1.30 (52.77) -0.69 0.19 0.55 (-35.31) 1.19 (40.25) 
5.98 17.98 14.25 -0.52 0.50 1.17 (37.87) -0.44 0.26 0.65 (-24.25) 0.97 (14.11) 
7.16 21.75 16.50 -0.72 0.49 1.23 (38.41) -0.55 0.22 0.63 (-29.33) 1.13 (27.07) 
6.84 9.84 6.14 -0.39 0.58 0.80 (88.41) -0.66 0.24 0.28 (-34.07) 0.42 (-1.65) 
6.05 20.46 12.75 -0.84 0.41 0.89 (17.45) -0.56 0.20 0.53 (-29.78) 0.87 (15.40) 
9.38 28.36 23.14 -0.64 0.62 2.12 (42.40) -0.53 0.29 1.06 (-28.44) 1.58 (6.14) 
7.84 8.01 9.49 -0.66 0.91 0.87 (51.88) -0.59 0.40 0.40 (-31.10) 0.65 (12.78) 
8.96 16.66 14.24 -0.85 0.57 1.00 (31.70) -0.49 0.25 0.56 (-26.61) 0.97 (27.57) 
10 5.18 9.89 6.14 -0.73 0.33 0.37 (21.93) -0.47 0.17 0.23 (-25.67) 0.40 (28.67) 
11 6.98 5.77 5.61 -0.57 0.78 0.57 (90.13) -0.81 0.29 0.18 (-40.03) 0.38 (27.45) 
12 4.98 8.86 7.06 -0.45 0.75 0.91 (75.67) -0.66 0.32 0.34 (-34.07) 0.48 (-6.86) 
13 5.21 11.36 10.22 -0.42 0.89 1.40 (79.71) -0.65 0.38 0.52 (-33.66) 0.70 (-10.63) 
14 5.18 6.11 4.45 -0.48 0.66 0.54 (83.02) -0.75 0.27 0.18 (-37.72) 0.30 (3.32) 
15 9.10 15.48 9.89 -0.74 0.41 0.73 (63.58) -0.70 0.16 0.29 (-35.72) 0.67 (51.41) 
16 8.96 10.16 5.59 -0.51 0.33 0.45 (60.04) -0.56 0.15 0.20 (-29.78) 0.38 (36.82) 
17 7.58 16.85 15.40 -0.35 0.92 2.25 (60.12) -0.54 0.46 1.00 (-28.89) 1.05 (-25.16) 
18 9.78 17.04 11.73 -0.58 0.45 0.96 (50.53) -0.64 0.21 0.42 (-33.24) 0.80 (26.07) 
19 6.74 11.36 9.37 -0.51 0.72 1.07 (56.12) -0.56 0.33 0.48 (-29.78) 0.64 (-6.95) 
Mean 7.35 14.31 11.21 -0.58 0.59 1.05 (55.97) -0.60 0.26 0.48 (-31.41) 0.76 (14.25) 
s.e.m. 0.37 1.41 1.13 0.03 0.04 0.11 0.02 0.02 0.06 0.08 
Low velocity model
High velocity model
AlgaHeight (cm)Aplan (cm2)Arep (cm2)Vogel's ECD,plan@ 0.5 m s-1Predicted force (N) (% error)Vogel's ECD,plan@ 1.9 m s-1Predicted force (N) (% error)Predicted FDR (N) (% error)
8.26 20.16 13.50 -0.42 0.51 1.42 (61.67) -0.55 0.24 0.62 (-29.33) 0.92 (4.99) 
9.44 24.80 17.47 -0.72 0.46 1.30 (52.77) -0.69 0.19 0.55 (-35.31) 1.19 (40.25) 
5.98 17.98 14.25 -0.52 0.50 1.17 (37.87) -0.44 0.26 0.65 (-24.25) 0.97 (14.11) 
7.16 21.75 16.50 -0.72 0.49 1.23 (38.41) -0.55 0.22 0.63 (-29.33) 1.13 (27.07) 
6.84 9.84 6.14 -0.39 0.58 0.80 (88.41) -0.66 0.24 0.28 (-34.07) 0.42 (-1.65) 
6.05 20.46 12.75 -0.84 0.41 0.89 (17.45) -0.56 0.20 0.53 (-29.78) 0.87 (15.40) 
9.38 28.36 23.14 -0.64 0.62 2.12 (42.40) -0.53 0.29 1.06 (-28.44) 1.58 (6.14) 
7.84 8.01 9.49 -0.66 0.91 0.87 (51.88) -0.59 0.40 0.40 (-31.10) 0.65 (12.78) 
8.96 16.66 14.24 -0.85 0.57 1.00 (31.70) -0.49 0.25 0.56 (-26.61) 0.97 (27.57) 
10 5.18 9.89 6.14 -0.73 0.33 0.37 (21.93) -0.47 0.17 0.23 (-25.67) 0.40 (28.67) 
11 6.98 5.77 5.61 -0.57 0.78 0.57 (90.13) -0.81 0.29 0.18 (-40.03) 0.38 (27.45) 
12 4.98 8.86 7.06 -0.45 0.75 0.91 (75.67) -0.66 0.32 0.34 (-34.07) 0.48 (-6.86) 
13 5.21 11.36 10.22 -0.42 0.89 1.40 (79.71) -0.65 0.38 0.52 (-33.66) 0.70 (-10.63) 
14 5.18 6.11 4.45 -0.48 0.66 0.54 (83.02) -0.75 0.27 0.18 (-37.72) 0.30 (3.32) 
15 9.10 15.48 9.89 -0.74 0.41 0.73 (63.58) -0.70 0.16 0.29 (-35.72) 0.67 (51.41) 
16 8.96 10.16 5.59 -0.51 0.33 0.45 (60.04) -0.56 0.15 0.20 (-29.78) 0.38 (36.82) 
17 7.58 16.85 15.40 -0.35 0.92 2.25 (60.12) -0.54 0.46 1.00 (-28.89) 1.05 (-25.16) 
18 9.78 17.04 11.73 -0.58 0.45 0.96 (50.53) -0.64 0.21 0.42 (-33.24) 0.80 (26.07) 
19 6.74 11.36 9.37 -0.51 0.72 1.07 (56.12) -0.56 0.33 0.48 (-29.78) 0.64 (-6.95) 
Mean 7.35 14.31 11.21 -0.58 0.59 1.05 (55.97) -0.60 0.26 0.48 (-31.41) 0.76 (14.25) 
s.e.m. 0.37 1.41 1.13 0.03 0.04 0.11 0.02 0.02 0.06 0.08 

Low (0-0.5 m s-1) and high (0.5-2.0 m s-1) velocity models refer to Vogel's E and CD,plan calculated at those ranges and force predicted at 1.9 m s-1 from those parameters using Eqn 2. FDR was calculated using Eqn 6. The percent errors were calculated as percent difference between the prediction and the drag measured at 1.9 m s-1.

For abbreviations, see List of symbols.

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