Table 2.

Power functions of kinematic parameters against body mass, flight speed or wing beat frequency

ParameterEquationNumber of observationsPower functionR2P
Wing beat frequency f (10) 115 14.8V−0.277 0.288 <0.001 × 10−6
Pregnant bat, slow speed (11) 16 18.5V−0.393 0.340 <0.01
Pregnant bat, slower speeds (12) 14 12.7V0.007 0.0002 =0.84
Stroke plane angle α (13) 29 44.8V0.297 0.631 <0.001 × 10−3
(14) 29 184f−0.438 0.685 <0.001 × 10−3
Wing stroke amplitude Θ (15) 24 67.1V0.174 0.146 =0.035
(16) 24 135f−0.204 0.081 =0.16
Wingtip excursion a (17) 24 0.095V0.137 0.132 =0.048
(18) 24 0.164f−0.158 0.071 =0.20
Strouhal number St (19) 24 1.93V−1.37 0.869 <0.001 × 10−4
Span ratio SR (20) 17 0.588V−0.0216 0.002 =0.86
(21) 17 1.55f−0.397 0.247 =0.037
Downstroke ratio τ (22) 22 0.634V−0.179 0.099 =0.18
ParameterEquationNumber of observationsPower functionR2P
Wing beat frequency f (10) 115 14.8V−0.277 0.288 <0.001 × 10−6
Pregnant bat, slow speed (11) 16 18.5V−0.393 0.340 <0.01
Pregnant bat, slower speeds (12) 14 12.7V0.007 0.0002 =0.84
Stroke plane angle α (13) 29 44.8V0.297 0.631 <0.001 × 10−3
(14) 29 184f−0.438 0.685 <0.001 × 10−3
Wing stroke amplitude Θ (15) 24 67.1V0.174 0.146 =0.035
(16) 24 135f−0.204 0.081 =0.16
Wingtip excursion a (17) 24 0.095V0.137 0.132 =0.048
(18) 24 0.164f−0.158 0.071 =0.20
Strouhal number St (19) 24 1.93V−1.37 0.869 <0.001 × 10−4
Span ratio SR (20) 17 0.588V−0.0216 0.002 =0.86
(21) 17 1.55f−0.397 0.247 =0.037
Downstroke ratio τ (22) 22 0.634V−0.179 0.099 =0.18

Mb, body mass (kg); V, flight speed (m s−1), f, wingbeat frequency.

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