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Table 6.

Elephant locomotor kinematics compared with scaling data from other animals

Dependent variableIndependent variableAt x value ofPredicted valueActual valueRatioabReference
Relative stride length         
Walk Fr 0.067 1.0 1.2 0.80 2.4 0.34 
Run Fr 1.0 1.9 2.0 0.95 1.9 0.40 
Run; non-cursorial Fr 1.0 2.7 2.0 1.4 2.7 0.28 
Forelimb duty factor         
Walk Fr 0.067 0.76 0.91 0.83 0.52 −0.14 
Run Fr 1.0 0.52 0.53 0.98 0.52 −0.28 
Hindlimb duty factor         
Walk Fr 0.067 0.83 0.88 0.94 0.51 −0.18 
Run Fr 1.0 0.53 0.51 1.0 0.53 −0.28 
Stride frequency (Hz) Mb (kg) 560 1.8 1.8 1.0 4.48 −0.14 
Stride length (m) Mb (kg) 560 3.9 3.1 1.3 0.35 0.38 
Velocity (m s−1Mb (kg) 560 7.0 6.8 1.03 1.53 0.24 
Stride frequency (Hz) Mb (kg) 2790 1.5 1.5 0.98 4.48 −0.14 
Stride length (m) Mb (kg) 2790 7.1 4.2 1.70 0.35 0.38 
Velocity (m s−1Mb (kg) 2790 10.3 6.8 1.51 1.53 0.24 
Relative stride length  1.0 2.3 2.0 1.2 2.3 0.60 
Relative stride length  1.7 3.2 2.6 1.2 2.3 0.60 
Stride frequency (Hz): maximal speed Mb (kg) 560 1.7 1.8 0.94 4.7 0.162 
Stride frequency (Hz): maximal speed Mb (kg) 2790 1.3 1.5 0.87 4.7 0.162 
Minimal trotting velocity Mb (kg) 560 2.9 3.3 0.86 0.593 0.249 
Minimal trotting velocity (m s−1Mb (kg) 2790 4.3 4.1 1.1 0.593 0.249 
Maximal speed (m s−1Mb (kg) 560 10.25 6.8 1.51 17 −0.08 
Maximal speed (m s−1Mb (kg) 2790 9.01 6.8 1.33 17 −0.08 
Maximal stride frequency (Hz) Mb (kg) 560 2.21 1.7 1.30 6.9 −0.18 
Maximal stride frequency (Hz) Mb (kg) 2790 1.65 1.3 1.27 6.9 −0.18 
Minimal hindlimb duty factor Mb (kg) 560 0.27 0.40 0.67 0.11 0.14 
Minimal hindlimb duty factor Mb (kg) 2790 0.33 0.49 0.68 0.11 0.14 
Dependent variableIndependent variableAt x value ofPredicted valueActual valueRatioabReference
Relative stride length         
Walk Fr 0.067 1.0 1.2 0.80 2.4 0.34 
Run Fr 1.0 1.9 2.0 0.95 1.9 0.40 
Run; non-cursorial Fr 1.0 2.7 2.0 1.4 2.7 0.28 
Forelimb duty factor         
Walk Fr 0.067 0.76 0.91 0.83 0.52 −0.14 
Run Fr 1.0 0.52 0.53 0.98 0.52 −0.28 
Hindlimb duty factor         
Walk Fr 0.067 0.83 0.88 0.94 0.51 −0.18 
Run Fr 1.0 0.53 0.51 1.0 0.53 −0.28 
Stride frequency (Hz) Mb (kg) 560 1.8 1.8 1.0 4.48 −0.14 
Stride length (m) Mb (kg) 560 3.9 3.1 1.3 0.35 0.38 
Velocity (m s−1Mb (kg) 560 7.0 6.8 1.03 1.53 0.24 
Stride frequency (Hz) Mb (kg) 2790 1.5 1.5 0.98 4.48 −0.14 
Stride length (m) Mb (kg) 2790 7.1 4.2 1.70 0.35 0.38 
Velocity (m s−1Mb (kg) 2790 10.3 6.8 1.51 1.53 0.24 
Relative stride length  1.0 2.3 2.0 1.2 2.3 0.60 
Relative stride length  1.7 3.2 2.6 1.2 2.3 0.60 
Stride frequency (Hz): maximal speed Mb (kg) 560 1.7 1.8 0.94 4.7 0.162 
Stride frequency (Hz): maximal speed Mb (kg) 2790 1.3 1.5 0.87 4.7 0.162 
Minimal trotting velocity Mb (kg) 560 2.9 3.3 0.86 0.593 0.249 
Minimal trotting velocity (m s−1Mb (kg) 2790 4.3 4.1 1.1 0.593 0.249 
Maximal speed (m s−1Mb (kg) 560 10.25 6.8 1.51 17 −0.08 
Maximal speed (m s−1Mb (kg) 2790 9.01 6.8 1.33 17 −0.08 
Maximal stride frequency (Hz) Mb (kg) 560 2.21 1.7 1.30 6.9 −0.18 
Maximal stride frequency (Hz) Mb (kg) 2790 1.65 1.3 1.27 6.9 −0.18 
Minimal hindlimb duty factor Mb (kg) 560 0.27 0.40 0.67 0.11 0.14 
Minimal hindlimb duty factor Mb (kg) 2790 0.33 0.49 0.68 0.11 0.14 

The dependent (y) and independent (x) variables are listed along with the independent value used to predict the y value,the actual y value used by elephants (from least-squares equations in Table 3), the ratio of the predicted/actual y values, and the `predicted value' scaling equations used (in y=axb). References for the`predicted value' equations used are: 1(Alexander and Jayes,1983); 2(Heglund et al., 1974); 3(Alexander, 1977); 4(Heglund and Taylor,1988); 5(Alexander et al., 1977).

Body mass values used are estimates for representative juvenile (560 kg)and adult (2790 kg) individuals.

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