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Table 1.

Mean plasma carotenoid concentrations (μg ml−1) in different treatment groups and P-values and Z-statistics for between-group comparisons (Mann-Whitney U-tests)

Control
Carotenoid
Difference between control and carotenoid P diff. (Z)
SRBCSaline
SRBCSaline
DateMean ± s.d. (N)Mean ± s.d. (N)P diff. (Z)Mean ± s.d. (N)Mean ± s.d. (N)P diff. (Z)
9 Feb 2.6±2.3 (13) 2.8±3.2 (14) 0.846 (0.19) 2.2±2.9 (14) 4.1±4.2 (14) 0.206 (1.26) 0.859 (0.17) 
15 Feb 4.3±3.8 (6) 3.1±.3 (8) 0.796 (0.25) 16.5±6.3 (6) 15.1±7.9 (5) 0.715 (0.36) 0.00005 (4.05) 
4 March 0.9±1.1 (12) 0.8±1.5 (12) 0.644 (0.46) 28.2±16.3 (10) 30.6±13.6 (13) 0.660 (0.43) <0.00001 (5.51) 
15 March 0.5±0.7 (12) 0.5±0.9 (14) 0.554 (0.59) 35.0±14.7 (13) 35.4±12.8 (11) 0.950 (0.06) <0.00001 (5.98) 
Control
Carotenoid
Difference between control and carotenoid P diff. (Z)
SRBCSaline
SRBCSaline
DateMean ± s.d. (N)Mean ± s.d. (N)P diff. (Z)Mean ± s.d. (N)Mean ± s.d. (N)P diff. (Z)
9 Feb 2.6±2.3 (13) 2.8±3.2 (14) 0.846 (0.19) 2.2±2.9 (14) 4.1±4.2 (14) 0.206 (1.26) 0.859 (0.17) 
15 Feb 4.3±3.8 (6) 3.1±.3 (8) 0.796 (0.25) 16.5±6.3 (6) 15.1±7.9 (5) 0.715 (0.36) 0.00005 (4.05) 
4 March 0.9±1.1 (12) 0.8±1.5 (12) 0.644 (0.46) 28.2±16.3 (10) 30.6±13.6 (13) 0.660 (0.43) <0.00001 (5.51) 
15 March 0.5±0.7 (12) 0.5±0.9 (14) 0.554 (0.59) 35.0±14.7 (13) 35.4±12.8 (11) 0.950 (0.06) <0.00001 (5.98) 

Individual changes in carotenoid concentrations among control birds: 9 Feb-15 Feb: P=0.362; Z=0.91; N=14. 15 Feb-4 March: P=0.006; Z=2.75; N=11. 4 March-15 March: P=0.004; Z=2.84; N=23. Individual changes in carotenoid concentrations among carotenoid-supplemented birds: 9 Feb-15 Feb: P=0.003; Z=2.93; N=11. 15 Feb-4 March: P=0.138; Z=1.48; N=9. 4 March-15 March: P=0.006; Z=2.73; N=19. Wilcoxon matched-pairs tests.

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