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Table 1.

Mediolateral peak substrate reaction forces (in body weight units)

Inner
Outer
LateralMedialLateralMedialANOVAχ2
Forelimb       
    L. catta       
        Ground 0.075±0.025 (4) -0.088±0.004 (2) -0.278±0.013 (27) P<0.05 P<0.001 
        Branch 0.111±0.017 (2) -0.104±0.054 (13) ns P<0.001 
    E. patas, ground       
        Combined sexes 0.077±0.034 (13) -0.008 (1) -0.120±0.057 (18) ns P<0.001 
        Female 0.056±0.039 (5) -0.137±0.055 (13) ns P<0.001 
        Male 0.065±0.026 (8) -0.008 (1) -0.077±0.041 (5) ns P<0.001 
Hindlimb       
    L. catta       
        Ground 0.151±0.103 (8) -0.236±0.097 (7) 0.222 (1) -0.410±0.184 (46) P<0.01 P<0.001 
        Branch -0.252±0.043 (25)  P<0.001 
    E. patas, ground       
        Combined sexes 0.113±0.025 (17) -0.108±0.058 (13) 0.071±0.015 (10) -0.155±0.064 (9) ns ns 
        Female 0.109±0.033 (6) -0.166±0.070 (4) -0.221±0.130 (2) ns ns 
        Male 0.114±0.021 (12) -0.083±0.030 (9) 0.071±0.015 (10) -0.136±0.027 (7) P<0.01 ns 
Inner
Outer
LateralMedialLateralMedialANOVAχ2
Forelimb       
    L. catta       
        Ground 0.075±0.025 (4) -0.088±0.004 (2) -0.278±0.013 (27) P<0.05 P<0.001 
        Branch 0.111±0.017 (2) -0.104±0.054 (13) ns P<0.001 
    E. patas, ground       
        Combined sexes 0.077±0.034 (13) -0.008 (1) -0.120±0.057 (18) ns P<0.001 
        Female 0.056±0.039 (5) -0.137±0.055 (13) ns P<0.001 
        Male 0.065±0.026 (8) -0.008 (1) -0.077±0.041 (5) ns P<0.001 
Hindlimb       
    L. catta       
        Ground 0.151±0.103 (8) -0.236±0.097 (7) 0.222 (1) -0.410±0.184 (46) P<0.01 P<0.001 
        Branch -0.252±0.043 (25)  P<0.001 
    E. patas, ground       
        Combined sexes 0.113±0.025 (17) -0.108±0.058 (13) 0.071±0.015 (10) -0.155±0.064 (9) ns ns 
        Female 0.109±0.033 (6) -0.166±0.070 (4) -0.221±0.130 (2) ns ns 
        Male 0.114±0.021 (12) -0.083±0.030 (9) 0.071±0.015 (10) -0.136±0.027 (7) P<0.01 ns 

The outer contacts are sidestep turns, the inner contacts crossover turns.

- indicates a limb use never observed.

Values are means ± s.d. (N).

ANOVA, P-values for comparison of mean peak reaction forces on forelimbs or hindlimbs; χ2, P-values for row-by-column tests of frequency distributions against random distributions; ns, not significant.

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