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Table 6.

Resting ventilation and heart rates reported in this and previous studies on S. officinalis

StudyTechniqueTemperature (°C)Cuttlefish size (mantle length, cm)Reported rateStandardized rate
Ventilation rate (breaths min-1     
    Present study Non-invasive (ultrasound) 15 15.5-18.5 35.0±9.2 35.0±9.2 
    Boal and Ni,1996  Non-invasive (visual observation) 19-21 7.5-10.5 45 32.1 
    Mislin,1966  Invasive (leads forced through mantle) 16-18 20-35 45±9 39.3 
    Bone et al.,1994  Invasive (electrodes in mantle tissue) 18.5 5.0-25.0 48-60 42.6 
Heart rate (beats min-1     
    Present study Non-invasive (ultrasound) 15 15.5-18.5 24.0±5.1 24.0±5.1 
    Chichery and Chanelet, 1972  Invasive (EKG leads) 16 13.6-20.0 20-30 22.8 
    Mislin,1966  Invasive (leads forced through cuttlebone) 16-18 20-35 43±9 35.8 
    Chichery,1980  Invasive (EKG leads) 13 Not reported 45-50 57.1 
StudyTechniqueTemperature (°C)Cuttlefish size (mantle length, cm)Reported rateStandardized rate
Ventilation rate (breaths min-1     
    Present study Non-invasive (ultrasound) 15 15.5-18.5 35.0±9.2 35.0±9.2 
    Boal and Ni,1996  Non-invasive (visual observation) 19-21 7.5-10.5 45 32.1 
    Mislin,1966  Invasive (leads forced through mantle) 16-18 20-35 45±9 39.3 
    Bone et al.,1994  Invasive (electrodes in mantle tissue) 18.5 5.0-25.0 48-60 42.6 
Heart rate (beats min-1     
    Present study Non-invasive (ultrasound) 15 15.5-18.5 24.0±5.1 24.0±5.1 
    Chichery and Chanelet, 1972  Invasive (EKG leads) 16 13.6-20.0 20-30 22.8 
    Mislin,1966  Invasive (leads forced through cuttlebone) 16-18 20-35 43±9 35.8 
    Chichery,1980  Invasive (EKG leads) 13 Not reported 45-50 57.1 

Rates are standardized to our temperature of 15°C using previously calculated Q10 values (King et al., 2005). If size was reported in mass instead of in mantle length, the equivalent mantle length was interpolated(Forsythe et al., 1994). We did not standardize rates for size. However, larger animals are expected to have slower heart rates (Chichery and Chanelet, 1972).

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