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Table 1.

Examples of the alternate reaction in selected animals across taxonomic groups

SpeciesBehaviourHeart rateVentilationReference
White-tailed deer fawn (Odocoileus virtinianus`Freezing' Decreased by 60±1.4% for 23±1.8 s Stopped in 72% of trials Jacobsen, 1979  
White Carneaux pigeon (Columba liviaNot reported Decreased by 6% for 4 s Not reported Cohen and MacDonald, 1971  
American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis`Freezing' Decreased by at least 84% for up to 15 min Stopped Smith et al., 1974  
Anuran amphibian (Rana pipiens`Freezing' Heart missed a beat Not reported Laming and Austin, 1981  
Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus`Freezing' Arrhythmia for 10-75 s with arrest for 13.8-18.5 s Stopped Barham et al., 1985  
Hermit crab (Dardanus arrosor`Alert pattern' Cardiac arrest for 1-10 s Paused scaphognathite irrigation Cuadras, 1980  
Common octopus (Octopus vulgarisDeimatic Display Arrhythmia for approximately 30 s Not reported Wells et al., 1987  
Common European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalisDeimatic Display No change Stopped or slowed for 1-6 s Chichery, 1980  
SpeciesBehaviourHeart rateVentilationReference
White-tailed deer fawn (Odocoileus virtinianus`Freezing' Decreased by 60±1.4% for 23±1.8 s Stopped in 72% of trials Jacobsen, 1979  
White Carneaux pigeon (Columba liviaNot reported Decreased by 6% for 4 s Not reported Cohen and MacDonald, 1971  
American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis`Freezing' Decreased by at least 84% for up to 15 min Stopped Smith et al., 1974  
Anuran amphibian (Rana pipiens`Freezing' Heart missed a beat Not reported Laming and Austin, 1981  
Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus`Freezing' Arrhythmia for 10-75 s with arrest for 13.8-18.5 s Stopped Barham et al., 1985  
Hermit crab (Dardanus arrosor`Alert pattern' Cardiac arrest for 1-10 s Paused scaphognathite irrigation Cuadras, 1980  
Common octopus (Octopus vulgarisDeimatic Display Arrhythmia for approximately 30 s Not reported Wells et al., 1987  
Common European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalisDeimatic Display No change Stopped or slowed for 1-6 s Chichery, 1980  
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