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Table 4.

Data from the literature used to construct the allometric equations(Eqn3and4) for the net energy cost of walking

AnimalMass (kg)Ewalk (net) (J kg-1 m-1)Non-locomotor (standing) cost (W kg-1)Minimum examinedSpeed (m s-1)Reference
Mammals       
   Granadia goat 35.4 3.37 1.93 Yes 0.17 (Lachica et al., 1997) 
   Red deer 68.3 2.56 2.07 Self-selected 1.67 (Brockway and Gessaman, 1977) 
   Human 69.5 2.06 1.50 Yes 1.20 Mean data (see Table 2) 
   Reindeer 92.8 2.38 1.92 Self-selected 0.83 (White and Yousef, 1978) 
   Caribou 102.1 1.71 * Yes 1.00 (Fancy and White, 1987) 
   Shetland pony 140 0.82 1.35 Yes 0.64 (Hoyt and Taylor, 1981), D. F. Hoyt (personal communication) 
   Miniature horse 121 1.37 1.34 Yes 0.9 (Griffin et al., 2004), T. M. Griffin (personal communication) 
   Bunaji bulls 378 1.47 * Self-selected 0.97 (Dijkman and Lawrence, 1997) 
   Arabian horse 448 1.08 1.29 Yes 1.05 (Griffin et al., 2004), T. M. Griffin (personal communication) 
   Brahman cattle 501.3 1.27 * Self-selected 1.23 (Dijkman and Lawrence, 1997) 
   Standardbred horse 515.0 1.49 0.65 Yes 1.20 (Minetti et al., 1999) 
   Camel 582.5 0.68 0.63 Self-selected 1.12 (Yousef et al., 1989) 
   Brahman × Friesen cattle 660 1.05 * Self-selected 1.06 (Dijkman and Lawrence, 1997) 
   Draft horse 715 1.05 1.38 Yes 1.55 (Griffin et al., 2004), T. M. Griffin (personal communication) 
   Water buffalo 811.3 1.56 * Self-selected 1.01 (Dijkman and Lawrence, 1997) 
   Elephant 1542 0.78 0.92 Yes 1.00 (Langman et al., 1995) 
Birds       
   Moorhen 0.29 29.89 5.67 Yes 0.33 J. A. Carr and R. L. Marsh (personal communication) 
   Duck 1.15 31.03 6.67 Yes 0.33 J. A. Carr and R. L. Marsh (personal communication) 
   Guinea fowl 1.45 14.63 6.37 Yes 0.50 (Marsh et al., 2004; Marsh et al., 2006), T. J. McPherson and R. L. Marsh (personal communication) 
   Marabou stork 4.50 8.26 3.81 Yes 1.02 (Bamford and Maloiy, 1980) 
   Ostrich 66.1 1.85 1.8 Yes 0.97 (Rubenson et al., 2004) 
AnimalMass (kg)Ewalk (net) (J kg-1 m-1)Non-locomotor (standing) cost (W kg-1)Minimum examinedSpeed (m s-1)Reference
Mammals       
   Granadia goat 35.4 3.37 1.93 Yes 0.17 (Lachica et al., 1997) 
   Red deer 68.3 2.56 2.07 Self-selected 1.67 (Brockway and Gessaman, 1977) 
   Human 69.5 2.06 1.50 Yes 1.20 Mean data (see Table 2) 
   Reindeer 92.8 2.38 1.92 Self-selected 0.83 (White and Yousef, 1978) 
   Caribou 102.1 1.71 * Yes 1.00 (Fancy and White, 1987) 
   Shetland pony 140 0.82 1.35 Yes 0.64 (Hoyt and Taylor, 1981), D. F. Hoyt (personal communication) 
   Miniature horse 121 1.37 1.34 Yes 0.9 (Griffin et al., 2004), T. M. Griffin (personal communication) 
   Bunaji bulls 378 1.47 * Self-selected 0.97 (Dijkman and Lawrence, 1997) 
   Arabian horse 448 1.08 1.29 Yes 1.05 (Griffin et al., 2004), T. M. Griffin (personal communication) 
   Brahman cattle 501.3 1.27 * Self-selected 1.23 (Dijkman and Lawrence, 1997) 
   Standardbred horse 515.0 1.49 0.65 Yes 1.20 (Minetti et al., 1999) 
   Camel 582.5 0.68 0.63 Self-selected 1.12 (Yousef et al., 1989) 
   Brahman × Friesen cattle 660 1.05 * Self-selected 1.06 (Dijkman and Lawrence, 1997) 
   Draft horse 715 1.05 1.38 Yes 1.55 (Griffin et al., 2004), T. M. Griffin (personal communication) 
   Water buffalo 811.3 1.56 * Self-selected 1.01 (Dijkman and Lawrence, 1997) 
   Elephant 1542 0.78 0.92 Yes 1.00 (Langman et al., 1995) 
Birds       
   Moorhen 0.29 29.89 5.67 Yes 0.33 J. A. Carr and R. L. Marsh (personal communication) 
   Duck 1.15 31.03 6.67 Yes 0.33 J. A. Carr and R. L. Marsh (personal communication) 
   Guinea fowl 1.45 14.63 6.37 Yes 0.50 (Marsh et al., 2004; Marsh et al., 2006), T. J. McPherson and R. L. Marsh (personal communication) 
   Marabou stork 4.50 8.26 3.81 Yes 1.02 (Bamford and Maloiy, 1980) 
   Ostrich 66.1 1.85 1.8 Yes 0.97 (Rubenson et al., 2004) 

Net costs of walking are either from studies where a minimum cost could be assessed or from studies examining self-selected speeds and are calculated using the subtraction method (see Materials and methods)

*

Standing cost was not reported in these studies but was used by the authors(Fancy and White, 1987); Dijkman and Lawrence, 1997) to compute Ewalk

Preliminary data from guinea fowl indicate that the minimum Ewalk is not statistically different from that observed at 0.5 m s-1 (T. J. McPherson and R. L. Marsh, personal communication)

The metabolic data (fig. 2 in Bamford and Maloiy, 1980) was scanned, digitized and fit with a 2nd order polynomial (y=1.20x2-0.65x+1.29; y is in ml O2 s-1, x is in m s-1). This equation fitted the data better than a linear relationship, as indicated by the higher r (0.85 vs 0.65). A minimum Ewalk is evident at ∼1 m s-1

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