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Table 1.

Human data (means) of net energy cost of running taken from the literature, used to compare with allometric predictions

(A) Slope method
(B) Subtraction method
Mass (kg)Erun (net) (J kg-1 m-1)ReferenceMass (kg)Erun (net) (J kg-1 m-1)Reference
70.1 3.92 (Boje, 1944) 72.7 3.15 (Bergh et al., 1991) BA 
53.7 3.66 (Bransford and Howley, 1977)FT 66.5 3.29 (Bergh et al., 1991) MR 
59.8 3.04 (Bransford and Howley, 1977)FU 51.7 3.61 (Bergh et al., 1991) FR 
67.0 4.08 (Bransford and Howley, 1977)MT 72.3 3.14 (Bergh et al., 1991) SO 
80.2 4.10 (Bransford and Howley, 1977)MU 70.1 3.75 (Boje, 1944) 
64.6 4.20 (Conley and Krahenbuhl, 1980) 53.7 3.56 (Bransford and Howley, 1977)FT 
63.1 4.19 (Costill and Fox, 1969) 59.8 3.51 (Bransford and Howley, 1977)FU 
63.7 5.07 (Costill et al., 1973) 67.0 3.43 (Bransford and Howley, 1977)MT 
65.4 4.82 (Daniels and Daniels, 1992) 80.2 3.57 (Bransford and Howley, 1977)MU 
58.9 4.24 (Daniels et al., 1977) 64.6 3.44 (Conley and Krahenbuhl, 1980) 
65.1 3.18 (Dressendorfer et al., 1977) 63.1 3.42 (Costill and Fox, 1969) 
65.4 4.70 (Hagan et al., 1980) 63.7 3.56 (Costill et al., 1973) 
73.8 4.18 (Knuttgen, 1961) 65.4 3.49 (Daniels and Daniels, 1992) 
68.8 4.02 (Margaria et al., 1963) 58.9 3.39 (Daniels et al., 1977) 
67.5 4.19 (Mayhew, 1977) 65.1 3.31 (Dressendorfer et al., 1977) 
66.1 3.46 (Mckicken and Daniels, 1976) 65.4 4.48 (Hagan et al., 1980) 
69.9 3.77 (Menier and Pugh, 1968) 73.8 3.82 (Knuttgen, 1961) 
61.4 3.59 (Pugh, 1971) 68.8 4.23 (Margaria et al., 1963) 
78.8 2.75 (Roberts et al., 1998) 67.5 3.59 (Mayhew, 1977) 
66.4 3.99 (Saunders et al., 2004a) 66.1 3.54 (Mckicken and Daniels, 1976) 
65.7 4.63 (Saunders et al., 2004b) 69.9 3.45 (Menier and Pugh, 1968) 
70.0 3.46 (Sheppard, 1969) 61.4 3.24 (Pugh, 1971) 
70.0 2.94 (Wright and Weyand, 2001) 66.4 3.48 (Saunders et al., 2004a) 
   65.7 3.77 (Saunders et al., 2004b) 
   70.0 3.73 (Sheppard, 1969) 
   70.0 3.22 (Wright and Weyand, 2001) 
Mean   Mean   
66.8 3.92  66.1 3.55  
(A) Slope method
(B) Subtraction method
Mass (kg)Erun (net) (J kg-1 m-1)ReferenceMass (kg)Erun (net) (J kg-1 m-1)Reference
70.1 3.92 (Boje, 1944) 72.7 3.15 (Bergh et al., 1991) BA 
53.7 3.66 (Bransford and Howley, 1977)FT 66.5 3.29 (Bergh et al., 1991) MR 
59.8 3.04 (Bransford and Howley, 1977)FU 51.7 3.61 (Bergh et al., 1991) FR 
67.0 4.08 (Bransford and Howley, 1977)MT 72.3 3.14 (Bergh et al., 1991) SO 
80.2 4.10 (Bransford and Howley, 1977)MU 70.1 3.75 (Boje, 1944) 
64.6 4.20 (Conley and Krahenbuhl, 1980) 53.7 3.56 (Bransford and Howley, 1977)FT 
63.1 4.19 (Costill and Fox, 1969) 59.8 3.51 (Bransford and Howley, 1977)FU 
63.7 5.07 (Costill et al., 1973) 67.0 3.43 (Bransford and Howley, 1977)MT 
65.4 4.82 (Daniels and Daniels, 1992) 80.2 3.57 (Bransford and Howley, 1977)MU 
58.9 4.24 (Daniels et al., 1977) 64.6 3.44 (Conley and Krahenbuhl, 1980) 
65.1 3.18 (Dressendorfer et al., 1977) 63.1 3.42 (Costill and Fox, 1969) 
65.4 4.70 (Hagan et al., 1980) 63.7 3.56 (Costill et al., 1973) 
73.8 4.18 (Knuttgen, 1961) 65.4 3.49 (Daniels and Daniels, 1992) 
68.8 4.02 (Margaria et al., 1963) 58.9 3.39 (Daniels et al., 1977) 
67.5 4.19 (Mayhew, 1977) 65.1 3.31 (Dressendorfer et al., 1977) 
66.1 3.46 (Mckicken and Daniels, 1976) 65.4 4.48 (Hagan et al., 1980) 
69.9 3.77 (Menier and Pugh, 1968) 73.8 3.82 (Knuttgen, 1961) 
61.4 3.59 (Pugh, 1971) 68.8 4.23 (Margaria et al., 1963) 
78.8 2.75 (Roberts et al., 1998) 67.5 3.59 (Mayhew, 1977) 
66.4 3.99 (Saunders et al., 2004a) 66.1 3.54 (Mckicken and Daniels, 1976) 
65.7 4.63 (Saunders et al., 2004b) 69.9 3.45 (Menier and Pugh, 1968) 
70.0 3.46 (Sheppard, 1969) 61.4 3.24 (Pugh, 1971) 
70.0 2.94 (Wright and Weyand, 2001) 66.4 3.48 (Saunders et al., 2004a) 
   65.7 3.77 (Saunders et al., 2004b) 
   70.0 3.73 (Sheppard, 1969) 
   70.0 3.22 (Wright and Weyand, 2001) 
Mean   Mean   
66.8 3.92  66.1 3.55  

(A) Net energy cost of running calculated using the slope method. (B) Net energy cost of running calculated using the subtraction method

For studies where multiple values exist, symbols represent groups: BA(biathletes), MR (male runners), FR (female runners), SO (ski orienteers), FT(female trained), FU (female untrained), MT (male trained), MU (male untrained)

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