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Table 1.

Characteristics of leading processes

Treatment Extension speed (μm/hour) Morphological change
EGFP   29.8±10.8 (n=30)   
N17-Cdc42   NA   Defective formation of polarized process  
Par6-NT   18.9±10.1** (n=26)   TLP branching  
S9A-GSK   16.4±12.6*** (n=26)   TLP branching  
APCΔCT   21.2±13.8* (n=30)   TLP branching  
Nocodazole   NA   Fragmentation of leading process  
EB3-GFP   NA   Random extension of leading process  
N17-Rac   1.64±7.86*** (n=28)   Suppressed protrusive activity  
Rac   9.99±8.26*** (n=16)   Multiply branched protrusive structure on TLP  
Δp85α PI3K   NA   Random migration and loss of long leading process  
KD-p110γ PI3K   28.4±14.0 (n=28)   Reduced size of TLP  
PTEN   26.6±11.6 (n=30)   Reduced size of TLP  
C124A-PTEN   18.3±12.5** (n=26)   Increased size of TLP  
KD-PAK   29.8±9.82 (n=26)   Branching and destabilization of TLP  
PAK   12.0±9.05*** (n=26)   Enhanced spreading of TLP  
Blebbistatin   10.6±12.2*** (n=30)   Reduced spreading of TLP  
C3 toxin   11.4±15.3*** (n=30)   Reduced spreading of TLP  
DN-Rho-kinase   17.8±11.6** (n=30)   Reduced spreading of TLP  
AG1478   7.74±12.0*** (n=29)   Suppressed protrusive activity  
ErbB4ΔIC   7.17±17.4*** (n=28)   Suppressed protrusive activity  
Treatment Extension speed (μm/hour) Morphological change
EGFP   29.8±10.8 (n=30)   
N17-Cdc42   NA   Defective formation of polarized process  
Par6-NT   18.9±10.1** (n=26)   TLP branching  
S9A-GSK   16.4±12.6*** (n=26)   TLP branching  
APCΔCT   21.2±13.8* (n=30)   TLP branching  
Nocodazole   NA   Fragmentation of leading process  
EB3-GFP   NA   Random extension of leading process  
N17-Rac   1.64±7.86*** (n=28)   Suppressed protrusive activity  
Rac   9.99±8.26*** (n=16)   Multiply branched protrusive structure on TLP  
Δp85α PI3K   NA   Random migration and loss of long leading process  
KD-p110γ PI3K   28.4±14.0 (n=28)   Reduced size of TLP  
PTEN   26.6±11.6 (n=30)   Reduced size of TLP  
C124A-PTEN   18.3±12.5** (n=26)   Increased size of TLP  
KD-PAK   29.8±9.82 (n=26)   Branching and destabilization of TLP  
PAK   12.0±9.05*** (n=26)   Enhanced spreading of TLP  
Blebbistatin   10.6±12.2*** (n=30)   Reduced spreading of TLP  
C3 toxin   11.4±15.3*** (n=30)   Reduced spreading of TLP  
DN-Rho-kinase   17.8±11.6** (n=30)   Reduced spreading of TLP  
AG1478   7.74±12.0*** (n=29)   Suppressed protrusive activity  
ErbB4ΔIC   7.17±17.4*** (n=28)   Suppressed protrusive activity  

Mean values obtained from three to four independent experiments are shown ± s.d. Asterisks indicate the value with a statistically significance change over control EGFP cells determined by Student's t-test: *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001. NA, not applicable because of their loss of directed extension

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