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Table 1.

Evidence that ESCRT proteins are required for the completion of autophagy

Protein Organism (cell type) Type of experiment Autophagy-related phenotype Reference
ESCRT-0 complex     
   Hrs  C.e.  LOF mutant   Accumulation of autophagosomes   (Roudier et al., 2005)  
   Hrs  M.m.  Neuron-specific KO   Neuronal death; accumulation of ubiquitylated protein aggregates   (Tamai et al., 2008)  
   Hrs  H.s (HeLa cells), M.m. (MEFs)   KO, shRNA   Increased number of autophagosomes; decreased number of autolysosomes   (Tamai et al., 2007)  
ESCRT-I complex     
   Tsg101  H.s. (HeLa cells)   siRNA   Accumulation of autophagosomes   (Doyotte et al., 2005)  
   Tsg101  H.s. (HeLa cells)   siRNA   Accumulation of autophagosomes and amphisomes   (Filimonenko et al., 2007)  
   Tsg101,Vps28  D.m.  LOF mutant   Accumulation of autophagosomes; lack of autolysosomes and amphisomes; neuronal death   (Rusten et al., 2007)  
ESCRT-II complex     
   Vps22  H.s. (HeLa cells)   siRNA   Accumulation of autophagosomes and amphisomes   (Filimonenko et al., 2007)  
   Vps25  D.m.  LOF mutant   Accumulation of autophagosomes; lack of autolysosomes and amphisomes; neuronal death   (Rusten et al., 2007)  
ESCRT-III complex     
   Vps32  M.m. (neurons)   siRNA   Accumulation of autophagosomes; decreased number of autolysosomes; neuronal death   (Lee et al., 2007)  
   Vps32  D.m.  LOF mutant   Accumulation of autophagosomes; neuronal death   (Rusten et al., 2007)  
   Vps24  H.s. (HeLa cells)   siRNA   Accumulation of autophagosomes and amphisomes   (Filimonenko et al., 2007)  
   Vps2B  H.s. (HeLa cells)   DN mutant   Accumulation of autophagosomes and protein aggregates   (Filimonenko et al., 2007)  
   Vps2B  M.m. (neurons)   DN mutant   Accumulation of autophagosomes; neuronal death   (Lee et al., 2007)  
Other     
   Vps4  S.c.  GOF mutant   Increased autophagy (measured as the accumulation of processed soluble alkaline phosphatase)   (Shirahama et al., 1997)  
   Vps4  H.s. (HeLa cells)   DN mutant   Accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes   (Nara et al., 2002)  
   Vps4  D.m.  DN mutant   Accumulation of autophagosomes   (Rusten et al., 2007)  
Protein Organism (cell type) Type of experiment Autophagy-related phenotype Reference
ESCRT-0 complex     
   Hrs  C.e.  LOF mutant   Accumulation of autophagosomes   (Roudier et al., 2005)  
   Hrs  M.m.  Neuron-specific KO   Neuronal death; accumulation of ubiquitylated protein aggregates   (Tamai et al., 2008)  
   Hrs  H.s (HeLa cells), M.m. (MEFs)   KO, shRNA   Increased number of autophagosomes; decreased number of autolysosomes   (Tamai et al., 2007)  
ESCRT-I complex     
   Tsg101  H.s. (HeLa cells)   siRNA   Accumulation of autophagosomes   (Doyotte et al., 2005)  
   Tsg101  H.s. (HeLa cells)   siRNA   Accumulation of autophagosomes and amphisomes   (Filimonenko et al., 2007)  
   Tsg101,Vps28  D.m.  LOF mutant   Accumulation of autophagosomes; lack of autolysosomes and amphisomes; neuronal death   (Rusten et al., 2007)  
ESCRT-II complex     
   Vps22  H.s. (HeLa cells)   siRNA   Accumulation of autophagosomes and amphisomes   (Filimonenko et al., 2007)  
   Vps25  D.m.  LOF mutant   Accumulation of autophagosomes; lack of autolysosomes and amphisomes; neuronal death   (Rusten et al., 2007)  
ESCRT-III complex     
   Vps32  M.m. (neurons)   siRNA   Accumulation of autophagosomes; decreased number of autolysosomes; neuronal death   (Lee et al., 2007)  
   Vps32  D.m.  LOF mutant   Accumulation of autophagosomes; neuronal death   (Rusten et al., 2007)  
   Vps24  H.s. (HeLa cells)   siRNA   Accumulation of autophagosomes and amphisomes   (Filimonenko et al., 2007)  
   Vps2B  H.s. (HeLa cells)   DN mutant   Accumulation of autophagosomes and protein aggregates   (Filimonenko et al., 2007)  
   Vps2B  M.m. (neurons)   DN mutant   Accumulation of autophagosomes; neuronal death   (Lee et al., 2007)  
Other     
   Vps4  S.c.  GOF mutant   Increased autophagy (measured as the accumulation of processed soluble alkaline phosphatase)   (Shirahama et al., 1997)  
   Vps4  H.s. (HeLa cells)   DN mutant   Accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes   (Nara et al., 2002)  
   Vps4  D.m.  DN mutant   Accumulation of autophagosomes   (Rusten et al., 2007)  

C.e., Caenorhabditis elegans; D.m., Drosophila melanogaster; DN, dominant-negative; GOF, gain of function; H.s., Homo sapiens; LOF, loss of function; KO, knockout; MEFs, mouse embryonic fibroblasts; M.m., Mus musculus; S.c., Saccharomyces cerevisiae; shRNA, short hairpin RNA; siRNA, small interfering RNA

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