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Table 2.

Properties of markers used in tracking cells for chimera analysis

Cell markers
Properties of markersGlucose phosphate isomerase: electrophoretic variants*Species-specific satellite DNA (Mus musculus versus M. caroli)Transgene insert (multiple copies of β-major globin)β-Galactosidase encoded by E. coli lacZ and alkaline phosphatase encoded by Akp2 or Plap§,Fluorescent proteins (spectral variants: green, yellow, cyan and red)**
Present or expressed ubiquitously in all cell types Housekeeping enzyme expressed in all cells Inherent to the genome, but detectable only in nucleated cells Permanent and inheritable integration in the genome, but detectable only in nucleated cells Expressed in every cells if driven by a universally active promoter/enhancer or restricted to specific cell types if driven by lineage- or temporal-specific regulatory elements Expressed in every cells if driven by a universally active promoter/enhancer or restricted to specific cell types if driven by lineage- or temporal-specific regulatory elements 
Detectable at single-cell resolution No, detection requires tissue destruction Yes Yes Yes Yes 
Detectable in whole mount preparation of the specimen No, detection requires tissue destruction No No Yes Yes 
Detectable after histological processing No, detection requires tissue destruction Yes, by in situ DNA-DNA hybridization Yes, by in situ DNA-DNA hybridization Yes Yes, visualized by fluorescence microscopy of wax-embedded sections, or by immunostaining of the protein 
Detectable in living cells or whole organism No, detection requires tissue destruction No No No Yes 
Cell markers
Properties of markersGlucose phosphate isomerase: electrophoretic variants*Species-specific satellite DNA (Mus musculus versus M. caroli)Transgene insert (multiple copies of β-major globin)β-Galactosidase encoded by E. coli lacZ and alkaline phosphatase encoded by Akp2 or Plap§,Fluorescent proteins (spectral variants: green, yellow, cyan and red)**
Present or expressed ubiquitously in all cell types Housekeeping enzyme expressed in all cells Inherent to the genome, but detectable only in nucleated cells Permanent and inheritable integration in the genome, but detectable only in nucleated cells Expressed in every cells if driven by a universally active promoter/enhancer or restricted to specific cell types if driven by lineage- or temporal-specific regulatory elements Expressed in every cells if driven by a universally active promoter/enhancer or restricted to specific cell types if driven by lineage- or temporal-specific regulatory elements 
Detectable at single-cell resolution No, detection requires tissue destruction Yes Yes Yes Yes 
Detectable in whole mount preparation of the specimen No, detection requires tissue destruction No No Yes Yes 
Detectable after histological processing No, detection requires tissue destruction Yes, by in situ DNA-DNA hybridization Yes, by in situ DNA-DNA hybridization Yes Yes, visualized by fluorescence microscopy of wax-embedded sections, or by immunostaining of the protein 
Detectable in living cells or whole organism No, detection requires tissue destruction No No No Yes 
*

Buehr and McLaren (1981)

Rossant et al. (1983)

Lo et al. (1987)

§

Soriano (1999)

Lobe et al. (1999)

**

Hadjantonakis et al.(2002)

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