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Table 1.

Proteins exported through non-classical pathways

Protein Reference Signal peptide Export sensitivity to brefeldin A Release characteristics
Secretory transglutaminase  Aumuller et al., 1999   —   Insensitive   Constitutive, through membrane blebbing  
Thioredoxin  Rubartelli et al., 1992; Rubartelli et al., 1995; Angelini et al., 2002   —   Insensitive   Induced by antigen-specific T cells, intracellular vesicles not involved  
Galectins  Hughes, 1999; Sato et al., 1993; Lindstedt et al., 1993   —   Insensitive   Constitutive, through membrane blebbing  
Il-1α  Tarantini et al., 2001; Mandinova et al., 2003   —   Insensitive   Stress-induced, Cu2+-dependent, in complex with S100A13  
Il-1β  Rubartelli et al., 1990; Andrei et al., 1999   —   Insensitive   Stress-induced, ABC-transporter-dependent, through the endolysosomal pathway  
FGF1  Jackson et al., 1992; Tarantini et al., 1998; La Vallee et al., 1998; Mouta Carreira et al., 1998; Landriscina et al., 2001a; Landriscina et al., 2001b   —   Insensitive   Stress-induced, Cu2+-dependent, in complex with S100A13 and p40 Syt1  
FGF2  Florkiewicz et al., 1995; Mignatti et al., 1992; Engling et al., 2002   —   Insensitive   Constitutive, Na+/K+ ATPase-dependent  
Sphingosine kinase  Ancellin et al., 2002   —   Insensitive   Constitutive, inhibited by cytochalasin  
Annexin I  Chapman et al., 2003   —   Not tested   Glucocorticoid-induced, ABC-transporter-dependent  
Annexin II  Peterson et al., 2003   —   Not tested   Thrombin-induced, in complex with p11  
p40 Synaptotagmin 1  LaVallee et al., 1998; Tarantini et al., 1998   —   Insensitive   Constitutive  
S100A13  Landriscina et al., 2001a; Landriscina et al., 2001b   —   Insensitive   Constitutive  
HIV Tat  Chang et al., 1997   —   Insensitive   Constitutive  
Herpes VP 22 protein  Elliott and O'Hare, 1997   —   Insensitive   Constitutive  
Foamy virus Bet protein  Lecellier et al., 2002   —   Insensitive   Constitutive  
Engrailed 2  Joliot et al., 1998; Maizel et al., 1999; Maizel et al., 2002   —   Insensitive   Attenuated by the CK2-dependent phosphorylation  
HMGB1  Gardella et al., 2002; Passalacqua et al., 1997; Passalacqua et al., 1998; Sparatore et al., 1996   —   Insensitive   Stress-induced, through an endolysosomal pathway  
Leishmania HASPB protein  Denny et al., 2000   —   Insensitive   Constitutive, acylation-dependent  
Protein Reference Signal peptide Export sensitivity to brefeldin A Release characteristics
Secretory transglutaminase  Aumuller et al., 1999   —   Insensitive   Constitutive, through membrane blebbing  
Thioredoxin  Rubartelli et al., 1992; Rubartelli et al., 1995; Angelini et al., 2002   —   Insensitive   Induced by antigen-specific T cells, intracellular vesicles not involved  
Galectins  Hughes, 1999; Sato et al., 1993; Lindstedt et al., 1993   —   Insensitive   Constitutive, through membrane blebbing  
Il-1α  Tarantini et al., 2001; Mandinova et al., 2003   —   Insensitive   Stress-induced, Cu2+-dependent, in complex with S100A13  
Il-1β  Rubartelli et al., 1990; Andrei et al., 1999   —   Insensitive   Stress-induced, ABC-transporter-dependent, through the endolysosomal pathway  
FGF1  Jackson et al., 1992; Tarantini et al., 1998; La Vallee et al., 1998; Mouta Carreira et al., 1998; Landriscina et al., 2001a; Landriscina et al., 2001b   —   Insensitive   Stress-induced, Cu2+-dependent, in complex with S100A13 and p40 Syt1  
FGF2  Florkiewicz et al., 1995; Mignatti et al., 1992; Engling et al., 2002   —   Insensitive   Constitutive, Na+/K+ ATPase-dependent  
Sphingosine kinase  Ancellin et al., 2002   —   Insensitive   Constitutive, inhibited by cytochalasin  
Annexin I  Chapman et al., 2003   —   Not tested   Glucocorticoid-induced, ABC-transporter-dependent  
Annexin II  Peterson et al., 2003   —   Not tested   Thrombin-induced, in complex with p11  
p40 Synaptotagmin 1  LaVallee et al., 1998; Tarantini et al., 1998   —   Insensitive   Constitutive  
S100A13  Landriscina et al., 2001a; Landriscina et al., 2001b   —   Insensitive   Constitutive  
HIV Tat  Chang et al., 1997   —   Insensitive   Constitutive  
Herpes VP 22 protein  Elliott and O'Hare, 1997   —   Insensitive   Constitutive  
Foamy virus Bet protein  Lecellier et al., 2002   —   Insensitive   Constitutive  
Engrailed 2  Joliot et al., 1998; Maizel et al., 1999; Maizel et al., 2002   —   Insensitive   Attenuated by the CK2-dependent phosphorylation  
HMGB1  Gardella et al., 2002; Passalacqua et al., 1997; Passalacqua et al., 1998; Sparatore et al., 1996   —   Insensitive   Stress-induced, through an endolysosomal pathway  
Leishmania HASPB protein  Denny et al., 2000   —   Insensitive   Constitutive, acylation-dependent  
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