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Table 3.

Anatomical and functional differences in the vocal tract of domestic fowl(Gallus gallus) and the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)

Domestic fowlSage-grouse (male)Sage-grouse (female)
Tracheal tympanum (fused rings near base of trachea) Present Absent Absent 
Caudal tracheal cartilages Laterally compressed region of 4–5 cartilages Six pliable rings, similar in size and shape to rest of basal trachea Cartilages similar in size, shape and ossification to rest of basal trachea 
Site of sound production Base of trachea (unpaired) Bronchial–syringeal junction (paired) Bronchial–syringeal junction (paired) 
Intrinsic syringeal musculature Absent Very robust Absent or virtually absent 
Domestic fowlSage-grouse (male)Sage-grouse (female)
Tracheal tympanum (fused rings near base of trachea) Present Absent Absent 
Caudal tracheal cartilages Laterally compressed region of 4–5 cartilages Six pliable rings, similar in size and shape to rest of basal trachea Cartilages similar in size, shape and ossification to rest of basal trachea 
Site of sound production Base of trachea (unpaired) Bronchial–syringeal junction (paired) Bronchial–syringeal junction (paired) 
Intrinsic syringeal musculature Absent Very robust Absent or virtually absent 

See Figs 1 and 7 for photographs

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