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Table 1.

Measuring the stiffness of tree frog toe pad epithelium

Frog no.PositionNα (nN nm–2)Eeff (MPa)
Distal 10 2.7×10–5±2.6×10–6 0.03±0.003 
Middle 10 4.5×10–3±8.0×10–4 5.70±1.01 
Proximal 10 4.8×10–4±2.3×10–5 0.61±0.03 
Proximal 10 2.0×10–2±7.0×10–3 25.32±8.86 
Middle 12 6.5×10–3±2.0×10–3 8.23±2.53 
Proximal 15 1.3×10–2±9.6×10–3 16.46±12.15 
Proximal 17 1.8×10–3±4.0×10–4 2.28±0.51 
Middle 14 5.2×10–2±4.6×10–2 65.83±58.24 
Distal 14 4.3×10–3±1.4×10–3 5.44±1.77 
Frog no.PositionNα (nN nm–2)Eeff (MPa)
Distal 10 2.7×10–5±2.6×10–6 0.03±0.003 
Middle 10 4.5×10–3±8.0×10–4 5.70±1.01 
Proximal 10 4.8×10–4±2.3×10–5 0.61±0.03 
Proximal 10 2.0×10–2±7.0×10–3 25.32±8.86 
Middle 12 6.5×10–3±2.0×10–3 8.23±2.53 
Proximal 15 1.3×10–2±9.6×10–3 16.46±12.15 
Proximal 17 1.8×10–3±4.0×10–4 2.28±0.51 
Middle 14 5.2×10–2±4.6×10–2 65.83±58.24 
Distal 14 4.3×10–3±1.4×10–3 5.44±1.77 

Estimates of Young's modulus of elasticity (effective elastic modulus EEff; means ± s.d.) from atomic force microscopy. Multiple measurements on three subadult Litoria caerulea from different positions on the toe pads. Overall mean is 14.4±20.9 MPa and median 5.7 MPa. α, material parameter related to Young's modulus

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