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Table 2.

Jumping performance of Issus compared with froghoppers and leafhoppers

UnitsBody mass mgBody length mmTime to take off msTake-off velocity m s–1Take-off angle deg.Body angle at take-off deg.Acceleration m s–2g force gEnergy μJPower mWForce mNPower/muscle mass1 W kg–1
Formula     f=v/t g=f/9.86 e=0.5 m v2 =e/t =m f p/(11 × m
Planthoppers             
   Issus, male             
   Mean (N=31) 21.5±0.56 6.7±0.07 1.49±0.04 3.2±0.21 42.7±1.8 17.1±2.4 2261±176.2 231±17.9 121±14.9 89±11.6 49±3.9 37,600 
   Best 22  0.78 5.5 56 10 7051 719 303 388 141 160,300 
   Issus, female             
   Mean (N=27) 32.2±2.01 8.1±0.14 1.6±0.03 2.2±0.14 44.7±1.7 26.5±1.5 1403±105.5 143±10.8 85±10.4 55±7.0 44±3.5 15,500 
   Best 30  1.25 3.8 52 34 3040 310 195 156 82 47,000 
Froghoppers             
   Philaenus*(N=34)             
   Mean 12.3±0.74 6.1±0.08 2.8±0.1 46.8±2.0 28±1.9 2800 286 48 48 34 35,500 
   Best   0.875 4.7   5400 550 155 155 66 114,500 
Leafhoppers             
   Aphrodes(N=43)             
   Mean 18.4±1.3 8.5±0.22 4.4±0.18 2.5±0.09 37.1±4.4 36.7±5.0 568 58 58 13 11 6500 
   Best   2.75 2.9   1055 108 77 28 19 14,000 
UnitsBody mass mgBody length mmTime to take off msTake-off velocity m s–1Take-off angle deg.Body angle at take-off deg.Acceleration m s–2g force gEnergy μJPower mWForce mNPower/muscle mass1 W kg–1
Formula     f=v/t g=f/9.86 e=0.5 m v2 =e/t =m f p/(11 × m
Planthoppers             
   Issus, male             
   Mean (N=31) 21.5±0.56 6.7±0.07 1.49±0.04 3.2±0.21 42.7±1.8 17.1±2.4 2261±176.2 231±17.9 121±14.9 89±11.6 49±3.9 37,600 
   Best 22  0.78 5.5 56 10 7051 719 303 388 141 160,300 
   Issus, female             
   Mean (N=27) 32.2±2.01 8.1±0.14 1.6±0.03 2.2±0.14 44.7±1.7 26.5±1.5 1403±105.5 143±10.8 85±10.4 55±7.0 44±3.5 15,500 
   Best 30  1.25 3.8 52 34 3040 310 195 156 82 47,000 
Froghoppers             
   Philaenus*(N=34)             
   Mean 12.3±0.74 6.1±0.08 2.8±0.1 46.8±2.0 28±1.9 2800 286 48 48 34 35,500 
   Best   0.875 4.7   5400 550 155 155 66 114,500 
Leafhoppers             
   Aphrodes(N=43)             
   Mean 18.4±1.3 8.5±0.22 4.4±0.18 2.5±0.09 37.1±4.4 36.7±5.0 568 58 58 13 11 6500 
   Best   2.75 2.9   1055 108 77 28 19 14,000 

The body mass for the best jump by a male or female Issus is for the individual that gave this performance

*

Philaenus spumarius (Linnaeus 1758). Data from Burrows, 2006a 

Aphrodes of the makarovi Zachvatkin,1948/bicinctus (Schrank) group. Data from Burrows, 2007b 

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