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Table 1.

Ecological data, body, ocellus and eye measurements, and the acceptance angles and optical sensitivities of single ommatidia, in four species of honeybees of genus Apis

SymbolA. melliferaA. ceranaA. floreaA. dorsata
Ecological data      
   Temperature range (°C)  >117 >10.51 18–431 >151 
   Light intensity  Half-moon in some subspecies7 Daylight Daylight Half-moon8 
Body and eye measurements      
   Intertegular width (mm)  3.2 3.0±0.05 2.2±0.07 3.9±0.2 
   Tongue length (mm)  5.8–7.13 4.53±0.012 3.41±0.022 6.14±0.042 
   Ocellus diameter (mm)  0.274 0.26 0.24 0.38±0.02 
   Eye length (mm)  2.64 2.1±0.1 1.7±0.05 2.8±0.1 
   Length of sensory hairs on the eyes (μm)  2759 125±14 50±6 100±7 
   Facet number per eye  54326 47525 5004 3484 6394 
   Max. ommatidial diameter (μm) D 205 24.5 19.5 29.5 
   Corneal thickness (μm)  27–384 27-35 25 46 
   Crystalline cone length (μm)  55 50 36 55 
   Focal length (μm) f 665 84 79 104 
   Distal rhabdom diameter (μm) d 2.05 1.8 1.5 3.2 
   Acceptance angle (deg.) Δρ 1.75 1.2 1.1 1.8 
   Rhabdom length (μm) I 3205 270 190 260 
   Optical sensitivity to white light (μm2 sr) S 0.115 0.07 0.03 0.21 
SymbolA. melliferaA. ceranaA. floreaA. dorsata
Ecological data      
   Temperature range (°C)  >117 >10.51 18–431 >151 
   Light intensity  Half-moon in some subspecies7 Daylight Daylight Half-moon8 
Body and eye measurements      
   Intertegular width (mm)  3.2 3.0±0.05 2.2±0.07 3.9±0.2 
   Tongue length (mm)  5.8–7.13 4.53±0.012 3.41±0.022 6.14±0.042 
   Ocellus diameter (mm)  0.274 0.26 0.24 0.38±0.02 
   Eye length (mm)  2.64 2.1±0.1 1.7±0.05 2.8±0.1 
   Length of sensory hairs on the eyes (μm)  2759 125±14 50±6 100±7 
   Facet number per eye  54326 47525 5004 3484 6394 
   Max. ommatidial diameter (μm) D 205 24.5 19.5 29.5 
   Corneal thickness (μm)  27–384 27-35 25 46 
   Crystalline cone length (μm)  55 50 36 55 
   Focal length (μm) f 665 84 79 104 
   Distal rhabdom diameter (μm) d 2.05 1.8 1.5 3.2 
   Acceptance angle (deg.) Δρ 1.75 1.2 1.1 1.8 
   Rhabdom length (μm) I 3205 270 190 260 
   Optical sensitivity to white light (μm2 sr) S 0.115 0.07 0.03 0.21 

Data that were not obtained in this study are from 1Corlett, 2004; 2Oldroyd et al.,1992; 3Böttcher,1977; 4Ribi et al.,1989; 5Greiner et al., 2004a; 6Seidl and Kaiser, 1981; 7Fletcher, 1978 on A. m. adansonii; 8Dyer,1985; 9Neese,1965. The acceptance angle Δρ was calculated from the ratio of the distal rhabdom diameter d to the focal length f, and optical sensitivity S was calculated using Eqn 2

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