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Table 2.

Parameters used in the energetic model for both alcid species

Brünnich's guillemotLittle aukReferences
Morphological properties    
   Body mass (max.–min.) (kg) 0.75–1.00 0.14–0.17 Schreiber and Burger, 2002 
   Plumage depth (dorsal–ventral) (mm) 5.6–16.0 7.4–12.8 This study 
   Plumage reflectivity (dorsal–ventral) (%) 38.0–74.4 40.4–65.0 This study 
   Feather length (dorsal–ventral) (mm) 32.4–25.0 20.0–19.2 This study 
   Feather diameter (dorsal–ventral) (μm) 33.0–33.0 33.0–33.0 This study 
   Wing span (m) 0.72 0.39 Croll et al., 1991; Elliot and Gaston, 2005, A. M. A. Harding, unpublished 
   Wing area (cm2550 180 Croll et al., 1991; Elliot and Gaston, 2005, A. M. A. Harding, unpublished 
Physiological properties    
   Body core temperature (max.–min.) (°C) 39.6–40.3 40.1 Gabrielsen et al., 1988; Gabrielsen et al., 1991  
   Flesh thermal conductivity (W m–1°C–10.5 0.5 Cheng and Plewes, 1992 
   Oxygen extraction efficiency (%) 35 35 Hainsworth, 1981; Arens and Cooper, 2005  
   Digestive efficiency (%) 70 80 Wiens and Scott, 1975; Harding et al., 2009  
   Core temperature–skin temperature (°C) 0.1 0.1 W.P.P., unpublished 
   Exhaled air temperature–local air temperature (°C) Porter et al., 2000  
   Bird density (kg m–3932.9 932.9 Porter et al., 2006  
   Flight metabolism (W) 88.00 10.57 Pennycuick, 1989; A. M. A. Harding, unpublished; this study 
Behavioural properties    
   Ventral area contacting substrate (%) 25 25 This study 
   Flight speed (ms–118.1 13.0 Nettleship and Birhead, 1985  
   Dive depth (m) 48.0 27.3 Falk et al., 2000; Mori et al., 2002  
   Flight altitude (m) Gaston, 2004; see methods 
   Proportion of time spent flying per day (%) Our estimate based on Falk et al.,2000; Falk et al.,2002, J.F., unpublished 
   Proportion of time spent diving per day (%) 17 17 Our estimate based on Falk et al.,2000; Falk et al.,2002; J.F., unpublished 
Brünnich's guillemotLittle aukReferences
Morphological properties    
   Body mass (max.–min.) (kg) 0.75–1.00 0.14–0.17 Schreiber and Burger, 2002 
   Plumage depth (dorsal–ventral) (mm) 5.6–16.0 7.4–12.8 This study 
   Plumage reflectivity (dorsal–ventral) (%) 38.0–74.4 40.4–65.0 This study 
   Feather length (dorsal–ventral) (mm) 32.4–25.0 20.0–19.2 This study 
   Feather diameter (dorsal–ventral) (μm) 33.0–33.0 33.0–33.0 This study 
   Wing span (m) 0.72 0.39 Croll et al., 1991; Elliot and Gaston, 2005, A. M. A. Harding, unpublished 
   Wing area (cm2550 180 Croll et al., 1991; Elliot and Gaston, 2005, A. M. A. Harding, unpublished 
Physiological properties    
   Body core temperature (max.–min.) (°C) 39.6–40.3 40.1 Gabrielsen et al., 1988; Gabrielsen et al., 1991  
   Flesh thermal conductivity (W m–1°C–10.5 0.5 Cheng and Plewes, 1992 
   Oxygen extraction efficiency (%) 35 35 Hainsworth, 1981; Arens and Cooper, 2005  
   Digestive efficiency (%) 70 80 Wiens and Scott, 1975; Harding et al., 2009  
   Core temperature–skin temperature (°C) 0.1 0.1 W.P.P., unpublished 
   Exhaled air temperature–local air temperature (°C) Porter et al., 2000  
   Bird density (kg m–3932.9 932.9 Porter et al., 2006  
   Flight metabolism (W) 88.00 10.57 Pennycuick, 1989; A. M. A. Harding, unpublished; this study 
Behavioural properties    
   Ventral area contacting substrate (%) 25 25 This study 
   Flight speed (ms–118.1 13.0 Nettleship and Birhead, 1985  
   Dive depth (m) 48.0 27.3 Falk et al., 2000; Mori et al., 2002  
   Flight altitude (m) Gaston, 2004; see methods 
   Proportion of time spent flying per day (%) Our estimate based on Falk et al.,2000; Falk et al.,2002, J.F., unpublished 
   Proportion of time spent diving per day (%) 17 17 Our estimate based on Falk et al.,2000; Falk et al.,2002; J.F., unpublished 
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