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Table 1.

Analysis of the effects of development (age), egg surface exposure to air,and position of external gills in relation to air-exposed surface on the behavior of embryos of red-eyed treefrogs, Agalychnis callidryas,videotaped in natural clutches

VariableEffectd.f.FP
Activity* Age 1, 18 67.46 <0.0001 
 Air exposure 1, 58 1.76 0.19 
 Age × exposure 1, 58 2.05 0.16 
Moves to deep position§ Age 1, 18 1.31 0.25 
 Air exposure 1, 58 27.95 <0.0001 
 Age × exposure 1, 58 0.04 0.84 
Position duration Age 1, 106 26.80 <0.0001 
 Air exposure 1, 106 0.59 0.44 
 Gill position 1, 106 123.82 <0.0001 
 Age × position 1, 106 41.31 <0.0001 
 Exposure × position 1, 106 0.01 0.93 
 Clutch (age) 18, 106 4.39 <0.0001 
VariableEffectd.f.FP
Activity* Age 1, 18 67.46 <0.0001 
 Air exposure 1, 58 1.76 0.19 
 Age × exposure 1, 58 2.05 0.16 
Moves to deep position§ Age 1, 18 1.31 0.25 
 Air exposure 1, 58 27.95 <0.0001 
 Age × exposure 1, 58 0.04 0.84 
Position duration Age 1, 106 26.80 <0.0001 
 Air exposure 1, 106 0.59 0.44 
 Gill position 1, 106 123.82 <0.0001 
 Age × position 1, 106 41.31 <0.0001 
 Exposure × position 1, 106 0.01 0.93 
 Clutch (age) 18, 106 4.39 <0.0001 
*

Total number of flexions plus position changes in 1 h; ANOVA results

Eggs were videotaped at ages 3 and 5 days; they become hatching competent at 4 days

Low, 27±2%; high, 67±2% of egg surface exposed to air

§

Number of position changes after which neither gill was visible at the air-exposed egg surface, relative to all position changes; general linear model, assuming binomial distribution

Total time embryo remained in the same location within egg, regardless of flexion within position; repeated-measures ANOVA

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