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Table 1.

Series 1 data

Release siteGroupNnαrhctvsh
Bolgheri 336° 54.8 km 08/08/2007 (+0.12 μT, +0°26′) 15 15 319 0.88*** +0.85*** 2′37″ 27.9 
 V1 14 14 330 0.91*** +0.90*** 2′07″ 43.5 
 ON 11 10 305 0.64* +0.55* 4′21″ Lost 
Agliana 242° 59.6 km 10/08/2007 (–0.13 μT,–0°18′) 15 13 254 0.79*** +0.77*** 4′28″ 7.4 
 V1 13 13 255 0.75*** +0.73*** 3′58″ 5.5 
 ON 11 10 342 0.29 –0.10 6′47″ Lost 
Marinella 154° 57.3 km 11/08/2007 (–0.12 μT,–0°23′) 14 13 188 0.71*** +0.59*** 3′51″ 28.1 
 V1 13 13 187 0.64*** +0.54** 4′00″ 11.3 
 ON 334 0.44 –0.44 5′00″ Later 
Pooled results 44 41 006 0.75*** +0.74*** 3′18″ 24.8 
 V1 40 40 010 0.74*** +0.73*** 3′23″ 10.8 
 ON 30 27 055 0.09 +0.13 5′11″ Lost 
Release siteGroupNnαrhctvsh
Bolgheri 336° 54.8 km 08/08/2007 (+0.12 μT, +0°26′) 15 15 319 0.88*** +0.85*** 2′37″ 27.9 
 V1 14 14 330 0.91*** +0.90*** 2′07″ 43.5 
 ON 11 10 305 0.64* +0.55* 4′21″ Lost 
Agliana 242° 59.6 km 10/08/2007 (–0.13 μT,–0°18′) 15 13 254 0.79*** +0.77*** 4′28″ 7.4 
 V1 13 13 255 0.75*** +0.73*** 3′58″ 5.5 
 ON 11 10 342 0.29 –0.10 6′47″ Lost 
Marinella 154° 57.3 km 11/08/2007 (–0.12 μT,–0°23′) 14 13 188 0.71*** +0.59*** 3′51″ 28.1 
 V1 13 13 187 0.64*** +0.54** 4′00″ 11.3 
 ON 334 0.44 –0.44 5′00″ Later 
Pooled results 44 41 006 0.75*** +0.74*** 3′18″ 24.8 
 V1 40 40 010 0.74*** +0.73*** 3′23″ 10.8 
 ON 30 27 055 0.09 +0.13 5′11″ Lost 

Release site: name of the release site, home direction, distance, date of the experiment and the difference in the magnetic intensity and inclination(in parentheses; values according to the International Geomagnetic Reference Field) with respect to home are indicated; Group: C, intact control pigeons;V1, pigeons with section of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve; ON,pigeons with section of the olfactory nerves; N, number of birds released; n, number of birds for which the initial orientation was recorded; α, mean vector direction expressed in degrees; r,mean vector length; hc, homeward component; tv,median vanishing time expressed in minutes and seconds; sh, median homing speed expressed in km h–1 (1 day, pigeons that homed on the day after the release;later, pigeons that homed later than the day after the release; lost, pigeons that never returned home). The asterisks in the r and hccolumns indicate the results of the Rayleigh and V test, respectively. ***P<0.001; **P<0.01; *P<0.05

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