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Table 1.

Functions of SUN and KASH proteins

SUN proteins Characteristics and function(s) at the INM References
Mammals    
   Sun1   Telomere attachment in meiosis and gametogenesis; nuclear-envelope integrity; recruit KASH proteins   (Crisp et al., 2006; Ding et al., 2007; Haque et al., 2006; Padmakumar et al., 2005)  
   Sun2   Nuclear-envelope integrity; recruit KASH proteins   (Crisp et al., 2006; Hodzic et al., 2004)  
   Sun3   Testis specific; ER localized; unknown function   (Crisp et al., 2006)  
   Spag4   Testis specific; not at nuclear envelope; unknown function   (Shao et al., 1999)  
C. elegans   
   UNC-84   Nuclear positioning; recruit ANC-1 and UNC-83 in somatic cells   (Malone et al., 1999; Starr and Han, 2002; Starr et al., 2001)  
   SUN-1 (matefin)   Centrosome attachment; apoptosis; chromosome pairing in meiosis; recruit ZYG-12 and CED-4   (Malone et al., 2003; Penkner et al., 2007; Tzur et al., 2006a)  
D. melanogaster   
   Klaroid   Recruit Klarsicht in eye disc; nuclear migration in eye disc   (Kracklauer et al., 2007)  
   CG6589   Unknown   (Kracklauer et al., 2007)  
Dictyostelium   
   Sun-1   Centrosome attachment; genome stability   (Xiong et al., 2008)  
S. pombe   
   Sad1   Spindle architecture; recruit Kms1   (Chikashige et al., 2006; Hagan and Yanmagida, 1995)  
S. cerevisiae   
   Mps3   SPB duplication; attachment of telomeres to nuclear envelope; recruit Csm4   (Conrad et al., 2008; Jaspersen et al., 2006; Koszul et al., 2008)  
KASH proteins   Known function(s) at the ONM   References  
Mammals    
   Syne-1 (Nesprin-1)   Anchorage of nuclei to actin filaments   (Apel et al., 2000; Zhang et al., 2001; Zhang et al., 2007b)  
   Syne-2 (Nesprin-2)   Anchorage of nuclei to actin filaments   (Apel et al., 2000; Zhang et al., 2007b; Zhen et al., 2002)  
   Nesprin-3   Intermediate-filament interactions with the nucleus   (Ketema et al., 2007; Wilhelmsen et al., 2005)  
   Nesprin-4   Unknown; endocrine specific   (Crisp and Burke, 2008)  
C. elegans   
   ANC-1   Anchorage of nuclei to actin filaments   (Starr and Han, 2002)  
   UNC-83   Nuclear migration   (McGee et al., 2006; Starr et al., 2001)  
   ZYG-12   Attachment of centrosomes to nuclei   (Malone et al., 2003)  
D. melanogaster   
   Klarsicht   Nuclear migration and centrosome attachment   (Mosley-Bishop et al., 1999; Patterson et al., 2004)  
   MSP-300   Muscle development (?); nuclear anchorage (?)   (Rosenberg-Hasson et al., 1996; Technau and Roth, 2008; Xie and Fischer, 2008; Yu et al., 2006)  
S. pombe   
   Kms1   Meiotic chromosome movement and pairing via dynein   (Chikashige et al., 2006; Miki et al., 2004)  
   Kms2   Meiotic and mitotic chromosome movement   (Chikashige et al., 2006; King et al., 2008; Miki et al., 2004)  
S. cerevisiae   
   Csm4   Meiotic actin-driven telomere movements and pairing   (Conrad et al., 2008; Koszul et al., 2008)  
SUN proteins Characteristics and function(s) at the INM References
Mammals    
   Sun1   Telomere attachment in meiosis and gametogenesis; nuclear-envelope integrity; recruit KASH proteins   (Crisp et al., 2006; Ding et al., 2007; Haque et al., 2006; Padmakumar et al., 2005)  
   Sun2   Nuclear-envelope integrity; recruit KASH proteins   (Crisp et al., 2006; Hodzic et al., 2004)  
   Sun3   Testis specific; ER localized; unknown function   (Crisp et al., 2006)  
   Spag4   Testis specific; not at nuclear envelope; unknown function   (Shao et al., 1999)  
C. elegans   
   UNC-84   Nuclear positioning; recruit ANC-1 and UNC-83 in somatic cells   (Malone et al., 1999; Starr and Han, 2002; Starr et al., 2001)  
   SUN-1 (matefin)   Centrosome attachment; apoptosis; chromosome pairing in meiosis; recruit ZYG-12 and CED-4   (Malone et al., 2003; Penkner et al., 2007; Tzur et al., 2006a)  
D. melanogaster   
   Klaroid   Recruit Klarsicht in eye disc; nuclear migration in eye disc   (Kracklauer et al., 2007)  
   CG6589   Unknown   (Kracklauer et al., 2007)  
Dictyostelium   
   Sun-1   Centrosome attachment; genome stability   (Xiong et al., 2008)  
S. pombe   
   Sad1   Spindle architecture; recruit Kms1   (Chikashige et al., 2006; Hagan and Yanmagida, 1995)  
S. cerevisiae   
   Mps3   SPB duplication; attachment of telomeres to nuclear envelope; recruit Csm4   (Conrad et al., 2008; Jaspersen et al., 2006; Koszul et al., 2008)  
KASH proteins   Known function(s) at the ONM   References  
Mammals    
   Syne-1 (Nesprin-1)   Anchorage of nuclei to actin filaments   (Apel et al., 2000; Zhang et al., 2001; Zhang et al., 2007b)  
   Syne-2 (Nesprin-2)   Anchorage of nuclei to actin filaments   (Apel et al., 2000; Zhang et al., 2007b; Zhen et al., 2002)  
   Nesprin-3   Intermediate-filament interactions with the nucleus   (Ketema et al., 2007; Wilhelmsen et al., 2005)  
   Nesprin-4   Unknown; endocrine specific   (Crisp and Burke, 2008)  
C. elegans   
   ANC-1   Anchorage of nuclei to actin filaments   (Starr and Han, 2002)  
   UNC-83   Nuclear migration   (McGee et al., 2006; Starr et al., 2001)  
   ZYG-12   Attachment of centrosomes to nuclei   (Malone et al., 2003)  
D. melanogaster   
   Klarsicht   Nuclear migration and centrosome attachment   (Mosley-Bishop et al., 1999; Patterson et al., 2004)  
   MSP-300   Muscle development (?); nuclear anchorage (?)   (Rosenberg-Hasson et al., 1996; Technau and Roth, 2008; Xie and Fischer, 2008; Yu et al., 2006)  
S. pombe   
   Kms1   Meiotic chromosome movement and pairing via dynein   (Chikashige et al., 2006; Miki et al., 2004)  
   Kms2   Meiotic and mitotic chromosome movement   (Chikashige et al., 2006; King et al., 2008; Miki et al., 2004)  
S. cerevisiae   
   Csm4   Meiotic actin-driven telomere movements and pairing   (Conrad et al., 2008; Koszul et al., 2008)  
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