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Table 2.

Studies using APC knockouts or knockdowns

APC genes Models Methods Tissues Main phenotypes Main mechanisms References
APC  Knockout mouse   Homozygous knockout   Embryo   Embryonic lethality at 5.5 d.p.c   Activation of Wnt signaling pathway  Ishikawa et al., 2003; Moser et al., 1995; Oshima et al., 1995  
  Knockout mouse   Conditional homozygous deletion   Intestines   Defects in cell migration, proliferation and differentiation   Activation of Wnt signaling pathway  Andreu et al., 2005; Sansom et al., 2004  
  Knockout mouse   Conditional homozygous deletion   Immune system   Defects in differentiation   Activation of Wnt signaling pathway  Gounari et al., 2005  
  Knockout mouse   Heterozygous knockout   Intestines   Formation of numerous polyps resembling FAP polyps   Activation of Wnt signaling pathway  Fodde et al., 1994; Oshima et al., 1995; Su et al., 1992  
  Mouse ES cells   Homozygous knockout   Mouse cultured cells   Spindle aberrations; Chromosomal instability   Defects in kinetochore functions; Activation of Wnt signaling pathway  Aoki et al., 2007; Fodde et al., 2001; Kaplan et al., 2001  
  Mouse ES cells   Homozygous knockout   Mouse cultured cells   Defects in differentiation   Activation of Wnt signaling pathway  Kielman et al., 2002  
  U2OS cells, HCT116 cells   Knockdown using siRNA   Human cultured cancer cells   Chromosomal instability   Deregulated expression of spindle checkpoint proteins; Defects in kinetochore functions; Inhibition of apoptosis  Dikovskaya et al., 2007  
  HeLa cells   Knockdown using siRNA   Human cultured cancer cells   No defects in expression of spindle checkpoint proteins; No notable chromosomal instability   Unchanged expression of spindle checkpoint proteins  Draviam et al., 2006  
  SW480 cells, WiDr cells   Knockdown using siRNA   Human cultured cancer cells   Inhibition of cell migration   Inhibition of Asef and Rac activities  Kawasaki et al., 2003  
  Vero cells   Knockdown using siRNA   Monkey cultured cells   Inhibition of polarized migration   Inhibition of actin meshwork and mislocalization of CLIP1  Watanabe et al., 2005  
  U2OS cells MEF   Knockdown using siRNA and conditional deletion   Human and mouse cultured cells   Inhibition of cell migration and formation of cellular protrusions   Decrease in overall microtubule stability and decreased posttranslationally modified microtubules  Kroboth et al., 2007  
APC2   No study reported       
dAPC1  Drosophila  Homozygous knockout   Eye   Viable; Neuronal degeneration and pigment cell hypertrophy of retina   Activation of Wnt signaling pathway  Ahmed et al., 1998; Hayashi et al., 1997  
dAPC2  Drosophila  Homozygous knockout   Embryo   Embryonic lethality   Defects in Wnt signaling pathway  McCartney et al., 1999  
   Homozygous knockout   Oocytes   Mislocalization of oocytes in egg chambers   Defects in cadherin-based adhesion  Hamada and Bienz, 2002  
dAPC1/dAPC2  Drosophila  Homozygous knockout   Ovary   No defects in cell adhesion, chromosomal segregation or spindle formation   No defects in cortical β-catenin localization or E-cadherin; No defects in spindle morphology or spindle orientation  McCartney et al., 2006  
APC genes Models Methods Tissues Main phenotypes Main mechanisms References
APC  Knockout mouse   Homozygous knockout   Embryo   Embryonic lethality at 5.5 d.p.c   Activation of Wnt signaling pathway  Ishikawa et al., 2003; Moser et al., 1995; Oshima et al., 1995  
  Knockout mouse   Conditional homozygous deletion   Intestines   Defects in cell migration, proliferation and differentiation   Activation of Wnt signaling pathway  Andreu et al., 2005; Sansom et al., 2004  
  Knockout mouse   Conditional homozygous deletion   Immune system   Defects in differentiation   Activation of Wnt signaling pathway  Gounari et al., 2005  
  Knockout mouse   Heterozygous knockout   Intestines   Formation of numerous polyps resembling FAP polyps   Activation of Wnt signaling pathway  Fodde et al., 1994; Oshima et al., 1995; Su et al., 1992  
  Mouse ES cells   Homozygous knockout   Mouse cultured cells   Spindle aberrations; Chromosomal instability   Defects in kinetochore functions; Activation of Wnt signaling pathway  Aoki et al., 2007; Fodde et al., 2001; Kaplan et al., 2001  
  Mouse ES cells   Homozygous knockout   Mouse cultured cells   Defects in differentiation   Activation of Wnt signaling pathway  Kielman et al., 2002  
  U2OS cells, HCT116 cells   Knockdown using siRNA   Human cultured cancer cells   Chromosomal instability   Deregulated expression of spindle checkpoint proteins; Defects in kinetochore functions; Inhibition of apoptosis  Dikovskaya et al., 2007  
  HeLa cells   Knockdown using siRNA   Human cultured cancer cells   No defects in expression of spindle checkpoint proteins; No notable chromosomal instability   Unchanged expression of spindle checkpoint proteins  Draviam et al., 2006  
  SW480 cells, WiDr cells   Knockdown using siRNA   Human cultured cancer cells   Inhibition of cell migration   Inhibition of Asef and Rac activities  Kawasaki et al., 2003  
  Vero cells   Knockdown using siRNA   Monkey cultured cells   Inhibition of polarized migration   Inhibition of actin meshwork and mislocalization of CLIP1  Watanabe et al., 2005  
  U2OS cells MEF   Knockdown using siRNA and conditional deletion   Human and mouse cultured cells   Inhibition of cell migration and formation of cellular protrusions   Decrease in overall microtubule stability and decreased posttranslationally modified microtubules  Kroboth et al., 2007  
APC2   No study reported       
dAPC1  Drosophila  Homozygous knockout   Eye   Viable; Neuronal degeneration and pigment cell hypertrophy of retina   Activation of Wnt signaling pathway  Ahmed et al., 1998; Hayashi et al., 1997  
dAPC2  Drosophila  Homozygous knockout   Embryo   Embryonic lethality   Defects in Wnt signaling pathway  McCartney et al., 1999  
   Homozygous knockout   Oocytes   Mislocalization of oocytes in egg chambers   Defects in cadherin-based adhesion  Hamada and Bienz, 2002  
dAPC1/dAPC2  Drosophila  Homozygous knockout   Ovary   No defects in cell adhesion, chromosomal segregation or spindle formation   No defects in cortical β-catenin localization or E-cadherin; No defects in spindle morphology or spindle orientation  McCartney et al., 2006  
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