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Table 1.

Functions of APC

Cellular processes Effects by wild-type APC Effects by loss of APC or truncated APC APC domains APC functions Binding proteins References
The canonical Wnt signal transcription   Inhibition   Activation (loss)   Armadillo repeats; 15- or 20-aa repeats   Stimulation of phosphorylation and degradation of β-catenin   β-catenin, GSK3β, Axin  Korinek et al., 1997; Morin et al., 1997  
  Inhibition   Activation (loss)   Armadillo repeats; 15- or 20-aa repeats   Export of β-catenin from the nucleus   β-catenin  Henderson and Fagotto, 2002; Neufeld et al., 2000; Rosin-Arbesfeld et al., 2003  
  Inhibition   Activation (loss)   Armadillo repeats; 15- or 20-aa repeats   Keeping β-catenin from the interaction with TCF   β-catenin  Neufeld et al., 2000; Rosin-Arbesfeld et al., 2003  
  Inhibition   Activation (loss)   15-aa repeats   Recruitment of repression complex to the transcriptional machinery   CtBP  Hamada and Binez, 2004; Sierra et al., 2006  
Cell adhesion   Stimulation   Weaken (loss)   Armadillo repeats; 15- or 20-aa repeats   Control of β-catenin distribution between in the nucleus/cytoplasm and the plasma membrane   β-catenin  Faux et al., 2004; Klingelhofer et al., 2003  
  Stimulation   Weaken (loss)   Armadillo repeats; 15- or 20-aa repeats   Increase in E-cadherin levels at the plasma membrane   β-catenin  Faux et al., 2004  
Cell migration   Stimulation   Stronger stimulation (truncated)   Armadillo repeats   Activation of Asef1 and Asef2; Activation of Cdc42   Asef1 and Asef2  Hamann et al., 2007; Kawasaki et al., 2003; Kawasaki et al., 2000; Mahmoud et al., 1997; Oshima et al., 1997; Wong et al., 1996  
  Stimulation   Inhibition (loss)   Armadillo repeats   Recruitment of IQGAP1 and CLIP-170; Formation of a complex with IQGAP1, CLIP-170, and activated Rac1 and Cdc42; Formation of actin meshwork   IQGAP1  Watanabe et al., 2004  
  Stimulation    EB1-binding domain   Functions downstream of Rho and mDia; Stabilization and polymerization of microtubules   EB1  Wen et al., 2004  
Chromosomal segregation   Proper segregation   Mis-segregation (loss)   Basic domain   Regulation of kinetochore functions   Microtubules  Dikovskaya et al., 2007; Fodde et al., 2001; Kaplan et al., 2001  
  Proper segregation   Mis-segregation (loss)   Armadillo repeats; 15- or 20-aa repeats   Inhibition of apoptosis at the G2/M checkpoint through Wnt signaling   β-catenin  Aoki et al., 2007; Hadjihannas et al., 2006  
  Proper segregation   Dominant negative (truncated)   Not determined   Regulation of kinetochore functions   Not determined  Tighe et al., 2004; Tighe et al., 2001  
Cellular processes Effects by wild-type APC Effects by loss of APC or truncated APC APC domains APC functions Binding proteins References
The canonical Wnt signal transcription   Inhibition   Activation (loss)   Armadillo repeats; 15- or 20-aa repeats   Stimulation of phosphorylation and degradation of β-catenin   β-catenin, GSK3β, Axin  Korinek et al., 1997; Morin et al., 1997  
  Inhibition   Activation (loss)   Armadillo repeats; 15- or 20-aa repeats   Export of β-catenin from the nucleus   β-catenin  Henderson and Fagotto, 2002; Neufeld et al., 2000; Rosin-Arbesfeld et al., 2003  
  Inhibition   Activation (loss)   Armadillo repeats; 15- or 20-aa repeats   Keeping β-catenin from the interaction with TCF   β-catenin  Neufeld et al., 2000; Rosin-Arbesfeld et al., 2003  
  Inhibition   Activation (loss)   15-aa repeats   Recruitment of repression complex to the transcriptional machinery   CtBP  Hamada and Binez, 2004; Sierra et al., 2006  
Cell adhesion   Stimulation   Weaken (loss)   Armadillo repeats; 15- or 20-aa repeats   Control of β-catenin distribution between in the nucleus/cytoplasm and the plasma membrane   β-catenin  Faux et al., 2004; Klingelhofer et al., 2003  
  Stimulation   Weaken (loss)   Armadillo repeats; 15- or 20-aa repeats   Increase in E-cadherin levels at the plasma membrane   β-catenin  Faux et al., 2004  
Cell migration   Stimulation   Stronger stimulation (truncated)   Armadillo repeats   Activation of Asef1 and Asef2; Activation of Cdc42   Asef1 and Asef2  Hamann et al., 2007; Kawasaki et al., 2003; Kawasaki et al., 2000; Mahmoud et al., 1997; Oshima et al., 1997; Wong et al., 1996  
  Stimulation   Inhibition (loss)   Armadillo repeats   Recruitment of IQGAP1 and CLIP-170; Formation of a complex with IQGAP1, CLIP-170, and activated Rac1 and Cdc42; Formation of actin meshwork   IQGAP1  Watanabe et al., 2004  
  Stimulation    EB1-binding domain   Functions downstream of Rho and mDia; Stabilization and polymerization of microtubules   EB1  Wen et al., 2004  
Chromosomal segregation   Proper segregation   Mis-segregation (loss)   Basic domain   Regulation of kinetochore functions   Microtubules  Dikovskaya et al., 2007; Fodde et al., 2001; Kaplan et al., 2001  
  Proper segregation   Mis-segregation (loss)   Armadillo repeats; 15- or 20-aa repeats   Inhibition of apoptosis at the G2/M checkpoint through Wnt signaling   β-catenin  Aoki et al., 2007; Hadjihannas et al., 2006  
  Proper segregation   Dominant negative (truncated)   Not determined   Regulation of kinetochore functions   Not determined  Tighe et al., 2004; Tighe et al., 2001  
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