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Table 1.

Repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) for differences in cell-mediated immune response (wing web swelling), body mass and plasma carotenoids between immune-challenged (PHA-injected) and control(PBS-injected) birds

Immune response
Body mass
Plasma carotenoids
Fd.f.PFd.f.PFd.f.P
Multivariate tests       
Time 51.916,44 <0.0001 12.396,44 <0.0001 4.106,44 0.002 
Time × injection 47.666,44 <0.0001 0.696,44 0.66 2.166,44 0.06 
Univariate tests       
Day 0 (before injection) 2.691,49 0.11 0.641,49 0.43 0.291,49 0.59 
Day 1 (24 h after injection) 194.431,49 <0.0001 1.001,49 0.32 6.251,49 0.01 
Day 2 23.161,49 <0.0001 0.621,49 0.43 6.551,49 0.01 
Day 4 14.071,49 0.0005 0.281,49 0.60 1.051,49 0.31 
Day 7 0.921,49 0.34 0.401,49 0.53 0.171,49 0.68 
Day 9 0.231,49 0.63 0.521,49 0.48 1.051,49 0.31 
Day 11 1.241,49 0.27 0.431,49 0.52 0.361,49 0.55 
Immune response
Body mass
Plasma carotenoids
Fd.f.PFd.f.PFd.f.P
Multivariate tests       
Time 51.916,44 <0.0001 12.396,44 <0.0001 4.106,44 0.002 
Time × injection 47.666,44 <0.0001 0.696,44 0.66 2.166,44 0.06 
Univariate tests       
Day 0 (before injection) 2.691,49 0.11 0.641,49 0.43 0.291,49 0.59 
Day 1 (24 h after injection) 194.431,49 <0.0001 1.001,49 0.32 6.251,49 0.01 
Day 2 23.161,49 <0.0001 0.621,49 0.43 6.551,49 0.01 
Day 4 14.071,49 0.0005 0.281,49 0.60 1.051,49 0.31 
Day 7 0.921,49 0.34 0.401,49 0.53 0.171,49 0.68 
Day 9 0.231,49 0.63 0.521,49 0.48 1.051,49 0.31 
Day 11 1.241,49 0.27 0.431,49 0.52 0.361,49 0.55 

Multivariate tests refer to Wilks' Lambda Manova test of the hypotheses of no effect of time and of no difference in dynamics between immune-challenged and control birds, i.e. no effect of the interaction time × injection. PHA, phytohemagglutinin; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline

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