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Table 1.

Percentage survival (means±s.d.) of the tested tardigrade species after cooling at different rates from room temperature (RT) down to–30°C with a constant thawing rate of 10°Ch–1up to RT again

Species9°C h–17°C h–15°C h–13°C h–11°C h–1
M. sapiens 47.5±17.1 43.8±14.9 0.0±0.0 0.0±0.0 27.6±10.4 
P. richtersi `group 1' 90.0±10.8 77.5±10.4 32.5±11.9° 16.3±14.9 27.5±5.0a 
P. richtersi `group 2' 23.8±8.5 7.5±5.0 5.0±4.8 15.0±10.8 38.8±11.9 
P. richtersi `group 3' 20.0±4.8 3.8±4.8 1.3±2.5 8.8±2.3 15.0±7.1 
P. richtersi 92.5±9.6 66.3±8.5 55.0±14.7c 61.3±19.3 72.5±6.5a,b 
M. tonollii 35.0±8.2 0.0±0.0 27.5±13.2 35.0±8.2 76.3±12.5a 
M. tardigradum 95.0±4.1 86.3±8.5 71.3±8.5 71.3±20.2 86.3±7.5 
E. granulatus 53.1±3.2 46.9±7.5 22.5±11.4 52.5±8.4 60.6±4.3 
E. testudo 46.9±5.5 38.8±6.3 19.4±5.5 17.5±5.4 42.5±4.6 
Species9°C h–17°C h–15°C h–13°C h–11°C h–1
M. sapiens 47.5±17.1 43.8±14.9 0.0±0.0 0.0±0.0 27.6±10.4 
P. richtersi `group 1' 90.0±10.8 77.5±10.4 32.5±11.9° 16.3±14.9 27.5±5.0a 
P. richtersi `group 2' 23.8±8.5 7.5±5.0 5.0±4.8 15.0±10.8 38.8±11.9 
P. richtersi `group 3' 20.0±4.8 3.8±4.8 1.3±2.5 8.8±2.3 15.0±7.1 
P. richtersi 92.5±9.6 66.3±8.5 55.0±14.7c 61.3±19.3 72.5±6.5a,b 
M. tonollii 35.0±8.2 0.0±0.0 27.5±13.2 35.0±8.2 76.3±12.5a 
M. tardigradum 95.0±4.1 86.3±8.5 71.3±8.5 71.3±20.2 86.3±7.5 
E. granulatus 53.1±3.2 46.9±7.5 22.5±11.4 52.5±8.4 60.6±4.3 
E. testudo 46.9±5.5 38.8±6.3 19.4±5.5 17.5±5.4 42.5±4.6 

Four replicates (N=4), containing 40 animals each, were used per cooling rate and species. aSignificant difference between 9 and 1°C h–1, bsignificant difference between 3 and 1°C h–1, and csignificant difference between 9 and 5°C h–1

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