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Table 4.

Raw means, standard deviations and ranges of the five mechanical output variables in walking and running

Peak flexor force (N)Flexor impulse (Ns)Negative work (J)Positive work (J)
Force plate trials (single forefoot model)     
   Walks 1227±577 (473–2977) 209±91 (58–366) –10.7±4.82 (–22.3– –0.54) 0.70±0.49 (0.09–1.57) 
   Runs 1982±552 (850–3176) 166±86 (62–519) –14.6±5.15 (–23.6– –6.6) 0.87±1.32 (0.01–6.5) 
   Difference 755±541 (–34–2042 –43.3±99.5 (–216–180) –3.9±6.33 (–22.12–5.44) +0.16±1.29 (–1.3–5.16) 
Pressure plate trials – hallux data     
   Walks 362±318 (0–1334) 53.7±81.4 (0–363.5) –2.44±2.97 (–13.5–0.00) 0.04±0.12 (0.00–0.58) 
   Runs 449±169 (140–742) 46.2±22.2 (15.7–108.9) –3.65±1.82 (–7.98– –1.13) 0.23±0.30 (0.00–1.34) 
   Difference +87±312.6 (–858–653) –7.5±80.5 (–312.8–100.6) –1.24±2.97 (–7.7–8.32) +0.19±0.32 (–0.41–1.34) 
Pressure plate trials – lateral toe data     
   Walks 48±94 (0–315) 4.5±9.0 (0–28.1) –0.20±0.42 (–1.42–0.42) 0.007±0.03 (0.00–0.16) 
   Runs 162±151 (0–532.3) 16.0±16.5 (0–56.6) –0.80±0.81 (–2.51–0.00) 0.04±0.07 (0.00–0.26) 
   Difference +113±129 (–73–469) +11.5±14.2 (–4.5–52.0) –0.60±0.66 (–2.31–0.05) +0.037±0.07 (–0.12–0.25) 
Peak flexor force (N)Flexor impulse (Ns)Negative work (J)Positive work (J)
Force plate trials (single forefoot model)     
   Walks 1227±577 (473–2977) 209±91 (58–366) –10.7±4.82 (–22.3– –0.54) 0.70±0.49 (0.09–1.57) 
   Runs 1982±552 (850–3176) 166±86 (62–519) –14.6±5.15 (–23.6– –6.6) 0.87±1.32 (0.01–6.5) 
   Difference 755±541 (–34–2042 –43.3±99.5 (–216–180) –3.9±6.33 (–22.12–5.44) +0.16±1.29 (–1.3–5.16) 
Pressure plate trials – hallux data     
   Walks 362±318 (0–1334) 53.7±81.4 (0–363.5) –2.44±2.97 (–13.5–0.00) 0.04±0.12 (0.00–0.58) 
   Runs 449±169 (140–742) 46.2±22.2 (15.7–108.9) –3.65±1.82 (–7.98– –1.13) 0.23±0.30 (0.00–1.34) 
   Difference +87±312.6 (–858–653) –7.5±80.5 (–312.8–100.6) –1.24±2.97 (–7.7–8.32) +0.19±0.32 (–0.41–1.34) 
Pressure plate trials – lateral toe data     
   Walks 48±94 (0–315) 4.5±9.0 (0–28.1) –0.20±0.42 (–1.42–0.42) 0.007±0.03 (0.00–0.16) 
   Runs 162±151 (0–532.3) 16.0±16.5 (0–56.6) –0.80±0.81 (–2.51–0.00) 0.04±0.07 (0.00–0.26) 
   Difference +113±129 (–73–469) +11.5±14.2 (–4.5–52.0) –0.60±0.66 (–2.31–0.05) +0.037±0.07 (–0.12–0.25) 

Data are means ± s.d. Data for force and pressure plate trials are presented separately. Significant differences in the biomechanical variables between walks and runs are highlighted in bold

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