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Table 3.

Behavior and cost of transport during voluntary exercise over ∼24 h at the two test sites, SNARL (2165 m elevation) and Barcroft (3800 m elevation)

TraitMean ± s.e.m. SNARLMean ± s.e.m. BarcroftF massP massF altitudeP altitude
Least chipmunk       
   Slope 1091±104 664±159 0.31 0.59 4.62 0.0447 
   Intercept 68.7±4.2 57.2±6.3 0.31 0.59 2.1 0.16 
   trun 197±30.3 185±46.1 3.52 0.076 0.04 0.84 
   drun 7.46±1.68 10.1±2.56 1.67 0.21 0.68 0.42 
   Vmean 2.12±0.14 2.93±0.22 0.37 0.55 8.81 0.00790* 
   Vmax 5.54±0.26 5.45±0.40 1.3 0.27 0.03 0.86 
   Vmax4.12±0.23 4.76±0.35 0.07 0.80 2.1 0.16 
   Vmax3.79±0.23 4.62±0.36 0.30 0.59 3.4 0.080 
   Vmax3.28±0.27 4.43±0.41 0.23 0.64 5.04 0.0371 
   Nbout 281±38 220±58 0.46 0.51 0.74 0.40 
   Boutmean 42.7±5.4 47.7±8.2 5.32 0.0326 0.24 0.63 
   Boutmax 431±108 771±164 0.03 0.88 2.7 0.11 
Golden-mantled ground squirrel       
   Slope 592±37 667±35 2.1 0.16 2.0 0.17 
   Intercept 52.6±2.3 37.6±2.2 0.63 0.44 19.7 0.000149* 
   trun 199±30.3 203±29.1 2.8 0.11 0.009 0.93 
   drun 12.7±2.25 13.1±2.17 4.0 0.055 0.009 0.93 
   Vmean 3.92±0.22 3.36±0.22 6.23 0.0193 2.9 0.098 
   Vmax 8.28±0.38 8.52±0.36 0.07 0.79 0.19 0.67 
   Vmax6.57±0.36 6.18±0.35 0.12 0.73 0.57 0.46 
   Vmax6.12±0.33 5.69±0.32 0.14 0.71 0.82 0.37 
   Vmax5.68±0.35 4.85±0.34 1.1 0.30 2.6 0.12 
   Nbout 349±49 270±47 2.7 0.11 1.2 0.28 
   Boutmean 42.7±4.9 42.8±4.7 0.01 0.91 0.99 
   Boutmax 444±80 347±74 0.38 0.54 0.70 0.41 
TraitMean ± s.e.m. SNARLMean ± s.e.m. BarcroftF massP massF altitudeP altitude
Least chipmunk       
   Slope 1091±104 664±159 0.31 0.59 4.62 0.0447 
   Intercept 68.7±4.2 57.2±6.3 0.31 0.59 2.1 0.16 
   trun 197±30.3 185±46.1 3.52 0.076 0.04 0.84 
   drun 7.46±1.68 10.1±2.56 1.67 0.21 0.68 0.42 
   Vmean 2.12±0.14 2.93±0.22 0.37 0.55 8.81 0.00790* 
   Vmax 5.54±0.26 5.45±0.40 1.3 0.27 0.03 0.86 
   Vmax4.12±0.23 4.76±0.35 0.07 0.80 2.1 0.16 
   Vmax3.79±0.23 4.62±0.36 0.30 0.59 3.4 0.080 
   Vmax3.28±0.27 4.43±0.41 0.23 0.64 5.04 0.0371 
   Nbout 281±38 220±58 0.46 0.51 0.74 0.40 
   Boutmean 42.7±5.4 47.7±8.2 5.32 0.0326 0.24 0.63 
   Boutmax 431±108 771±164 0.03 0.88 2.7 0.11 
Golden-mantled ground squirrel       
   Slope 592±37 667±35 2.1 0.16 2.0 0.17 
   Intercept 52.6±2.3 37.6±2.2 0.63 0.44 19.7 0.000149* 
   trun 199±30.3 203±29.1 2.8 0.11 0.009 0.93 
   drun 12.7±2.25 13.1±2.17 4.0 0.055 0.009 0.93 
   Vmean 3.92±0.22 3.36±0.22 6.23 0.0193 2.9 0.098 
   Vmax 8.28±0.38 8.52±0.36 0.07 0.79 0.19 0.67 
   Vmax6.57±0.36 6.18±0.35 0.12 0.73 0.57 0.46 
   Vmax6.12±0.33 5.69±0.32 0.14 0.71 0.82 0.37 
   Vmax5.68±0.35 4.85±0.34 1.1 0.30 2.6 0.12 
   Nbout 349±49 270±47 2.7 0.11 1.2 0.28 
   Boutmean 42.7±4.9 42.8±4.7 0.01 0.91 0.99 
   Boutmax 444±80 347±74 0.38 0.54 0.70 0.41 

ANCOVA with altitude as a fixed effect and body mass as covariate

Symbols and units as in Table 1; sample sizes as in Table 2. P<0.05 are in bold; P values that remained significant after an FDR test are indicated with asterisks (*)

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