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Table 1.

Foraging-dependent physiological classification of bees

Phenotype Foraging duration ≥5 days Foraging duration ≥15 days 
Wingwear Intact wings Worn wings 
Hair coat Dense on thorax and head Hairless patches on thorax and head 
Head capsule tissue Hypertrophied hypopharyngeal glands Atrophied hypopharyngeal glands 
Phenotype Foraging duration ≥5 days Foraging duration ≥15 days 
Wingwear Intact wings Worn wings 
Hair coat Dense on thorax and head Hairless patches on thorax and head 
Head capsule tissue Hypertrophied hypopharyngeal glands Atrophied hypopharyngeal glands 

Bees caught after different foraging durations (≥5 days and ≥15 days) were characterized based on wing wear, gland size and hair coat. This classification provided a framework of physiological markers for subsequent sample collections.

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