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Table 3.

Mean ground force measurements for acceleration and galloping

Maximum forces (BW)
Mean forces (BW)
Force impulses (BW ms–1)
Stance time (ms)VerticalPropulsiveVerticalPropulsiveVerticalPropulsiveMean force vector angle (deg.)
Hindlimb Pushoff 285±16 0.69±0.02 0.55±0.04 0.44±0.02 0.34±0.03 125.7±8.1 93.3±6.8 54±2.0 
 Step 1 160±11 0.92±0.03 0.65±0.05 0.60±0.02 0.41±0.03 96.2±6.5 63.4±3.8 57±1.8 
 Step 2 133±11 1.01±0.04 0.57±0.03 0.64±0.02 0.34±0.03 85.2±6.6 43.2±2.6 63±1.8 
 Gallop lead* 71.5±3.2 1.64±0.11 0.46±0.07 0.99±0.07  70.0±4.2 13.0±2.22  
 Gallop trail* 74.3±4.0 1.47±0.09 0.38±0.05 0.94±0.07  68.6±3.8 10.7±1.85  
Forelimb Step 1 trail (N=4) 255±21 0.60±0.07 0.41±0.04 0.33±0.04 0.23±0.02 80.1±12.0 57.3±7.6 54±2.0 
 Step 1 lead 174±15 0.63±0.08 0.45±0.04 0.37±0.05 0.27±0.02 62.5±6.6 42.1±4.3 55±2.0 
 Step 2 trail (N=5) 124±13 0.95±0.08 0.47±0.03 0.53±0.04 0.27±0.02 64.4±4.4 32.8±2.4 60±1.4 
 Step 2 lead 117±8.3 0.86±0.08 0.43±0.03 0.51±0.04 0.27±0.02 58.7±4.8 31.2±1.9 59±1.4 
 Gallop lead* 74.5±4.6 2.12±0.10 0.44±0.04 1.25±0.07  91.7±3.0 10.8±0.90  
 Gallop trail* 70.8±5.0 2.23±0.13 0.49±0.04 1.31±0.08  91.8±4.0 12.3±0.75  
Maximum forces (BW)
Mean forces (BW)
Force impulses (BW ms–1)
Stance time (ms)VerticalPropulsiveVerticalPropulsiveVerticalPropulsiveMean force vector angle (deg.)
Hindlimb Pushoff 285±16 0.69±0.02 0.55±0.04 0.44±0.02 0.34±0.03 125.7±8.1 93.3±6.8 54±2.0 
 Step 1 160±11 0.92±0.03 0.65±0.05 0.60±0.02 0.41±0.03 96.2±6.5 63.4±3.8 57±1.8 
 Step 2 133±11 1.01±0.04 0.57±0.03 0.64±0.02 0.34±0.03 85.2±6.6 43.2±2.6 63±1.8 
 Gallop lead* 71.5±3.2 1.64±0.11 0.46±0.07 0.99±0.07  70.0±4.2 13.0±2.22  
 Gallop trail* 74.3±4.0 1.47±0.09 0.38±0.05 0.94±0.07  68.6±3.8 10.7±1.85  
Forelimb Step 1 trail (N=4) 255±21 0.60±0.07 0.41±0.04 0.33±0.04 0.23±0.02 80.1±12.0 57.3±7.6 54±2.0 
 Step 1 lead 174±15 0.63±0.08 0.45±0.04 0.37±0.05 0.27±0.02 62.5±6.6 42.1±4.3 55±2.0 
 Step 2 trail (N=5) 124±13 0.95±0.08 0.47±0.03 0.53±0.04 0.27±0.02 64.4±4.4 32.8±2.4 60±1.4 
 Step 2 lead 117±8.3 0.86±0.08 0.43±0.03 0.51±0.04 0.27±0.02 58.7±4.8 31.2±1.9 59±1.4 
 Gallop lead* 74.5±4.6 2.12±0.10 0.44±0.04 1.25±0.07  91.7±3.0 10.8±0.90  
 Gallop trail* 70.8±5.0 2.23±0.13 0.49±0.04 1.31±0.08  91.8±4.0 12.3±0.75  

Stance times are in milliseconds, forces are in body weights (BW), and impulses are in body weight per milliseconds (BW ms–1). The mean force vector angle was calculated by averaging the instantaneous force vector angles over the stance period. *Values for galloping are taken from a previous study (Walter and Carrier, 2007), and are means and standard errors for six dogs,five of which were also used in this study. Other values are means and standard errors for seven dogs unless otherwise noted

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