Skip to Main Content
Table 2.

Means for kinematic movement and timing variables in each habitat

VariablesTerrestrialAquaticSignificance
Duration of stroke (s) 0.49±0.04 0.26±0.01  
Distance traveled per stroke (cm) 2.13±0.09 3.49±0.27  
Average speed (cm s–14.47±0.27 13.75±1.05  
Duration of propulsive phase (% stroke) 45±2 38±2  
Duration of recovery phase (% stroke) 52±2 56±2  
Time of initiation of recovery phase (% stroke) 48±2 44±2  
Time of maximum elevation (% stroke) 67±5 36±2 * 
Time of maximum posterior extension (% stroke) 47±2 43±3  
Minimum angle (deg.) 76±1 121±8  
Maximum angle (deg.) 178±7 213±4  
Elevation of radials (cm) 0.04±0.03 0.01±0.02  
Elevation of rays (cm) 0.05±0.08 0.16±0.08  
Elevation of whole fin (cm) –0.02±0.08 0.13±0.09  
Depression of radials (cm) –0.24±0.02 –0.17±0.04  
Depression of rays (cm) –0.53±0.03 –0.29±0.02  
Depression of whole fin (cm) –0.60±0.07 –0.39±0.04 n.s. 
Anterior extension of radials (cm) 0.0±0.01 –0.08±0.03  
Anterior extension of rays (cm) 0.78±0.04 0.31±0.03  
Anterior extension of whole fin (cm) 0.73±0.04 0.19±0.02 * 
Posterior extension of radials (cm) –0.49±0.03 –0.46±0.03  
Posterior extension of rays (cm) –0.66±0.003 –0.74±0.05  
Posterior extension of whole fin (cm) –1.08±0.02 –1.14±0.07 n.s. 
Ventral fin area during propulsion (cm20.21±0.01 0.31±0.04  
Ventral fin area during recovery (cm20.30±0.02 0.46±0.04 * 
Difference in ventral fin area (propulsion–recovery) (cm20.08±0.02 0.15±0.003 n.s. 
VariablesTerrestrialAquaticSignificance
Duration of stroke (s) 0.49±0.04 0.26±0.01  
Distance traveled per stroke (cm) 2.13±0.09 3.49±0.27  
Average speed (cm s–14.47±0.27 13.75±1.05  
Duration of propulsive phase (% stroke) 45±2 38±2  
Duration of recovery phase (% stroke) 52±2 56±2  
Time of initiation of recovery phase (% stroke) 48±2 44±2  
Time of maximum elevation (% stroke) 67±5 36±2 * 
Time of maximum posterior extension (% stroke) 47±2 43±3  
Minimum angle (deg.) 76±1 121±8  
Maximum angle (deg.) 178±7 213±4  
Elevation of radials (cm) 0.04±0.03 0.01±0.02  
Elevation of rays (cm) 0.05±0.08 0.16±0.08  
Elevation of whole fin (cm) –0.02±0.08 0.13±0.09  
Depression of radials (cm) –0.24±0.02 –0.17±0.04  
Depression of rays (cm) –0.53±0.03 –0.29±0.02  
Depression of whole fin (cm) –0.60±0.07 –0.39±0.04 n.s. 
Anterior extension of radials (cm) 0.0±0.01 –0.08±0.03  
Anterior extension of rays (cm) 0.78±0.04 0.31±0.03  
Anterior extension of whole fin (cm) 0.73±0.04 0.19±0.02 * 
Posterior extension of radials (cm) –0.49±0.03 –0.46±0.03  
Posterior extension of rays (cm) –0.66±0.003 –0.74±0.05  
Posterior extension of whole fin (cm) –1.08±0.02 –1.14±0.07 n.s. 
Ventral fin area during propulsion (cm20.21±0.01 0.31±0.04  
Ventral fin area during recovery (cm20.30±0.02 0.46±0.04 * 
Difference in ventral fin area (propulsion–recovery) (cm20.08±0.02 0.15±0.003 n.s. 
*

Variables that were found to be significantly different between environments; n.s., variables that were not found to be significant at theα=0.05 level

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal