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Table 2.

Occasionally measured parameters of the bullfrog middle ear

Extracolumella
Columella
Operculum
RA (mm)TM Mass (mg)Length (mm)Width, (prox.), (mm)Mass (mg)Lever ratioLength (mm)Mass (mg)Footplate Mass (mg)Area (mm2)Mass (mg)Oval window Area (mm2)
Males             
   Mean 144.2 88.8 3.5 1.3 2.7 2.84 5.6 6.0 1.4 5.44 4.3 3.54 
   s.d. 7.5 43.6 0.4 0.4 0.6 1.31 0.5 1.9 0.5 1.32 1.5 0.29 
   Range 134–153 58.0–119.7 3.0–3.9 0.9–1.7 2.0–3.1 1.88–4.33 5.1–6.3 4.5–8.2 1.0–2.0 3.5–6.94 3.3–6.0 3.34–3.75 
   N 
Females             
   Mean 132.6 18.7 3.6 1.4 3.6 3.14 5.1 6.5 2.1 5.03 3.6 3.63 
   s.d. 10.8 n.a. 0.7 n.a. n.a. n.a. 0.7 n.a. n.a. 0.94 n.a. n.a. 
   Range 118–146.5 n.a. 2.8–4.4 n.a. n.a. n.a. 4.5–6.0 n.a. n.a. 4.0–6.1 n.a. n.a. 
   N 
All             
   Mean 137.4 65.5 3.6 1.32 2.9 2.92 5.4 6.1 1.6 5.24 4.1 3.57 
   s.d. 10.9 50.9 0.54 0.33 0.7 1.08 0.6 1.7 0.6 1.1 1.24 0.21 
   Range 118–153 18.7–119.7 2.85–4.4 0.9–1.7 2.0–3.6 1.88–4.33 4.5–6.3 4.5–8.2 1.0–2.1 3.5–6.86 3.3–6.0 3.34–3.75 
   N 12 10 10 
Extracolumella
Columella
Operculum
RA (mm)TM Mass (mg)Length (mm)Width, (prox.), (mm)Mass (mg)Lever ratioLength (mm)Mass (mg)Footplate Mass (mg)Area (mm2)Mass (mg)Oval window Area (mm2)
Males             
   Mean 144.2 88.8 3.5 1.3 2.7 2.84 5.6 6.0 1.4 5.44 4.3 3.54 
   s.d. 7.5 43.6 0.4 0.4 0.6 1.31 0.5 1.9 0.5 1.32 1.5 0.29 
   Range 134–153 58.0–119.7 3.0–3.9 0.9–1.7 2.0–3.1 1.88–4.33 5.1–6.3 4.5–8.2 1.0–2.0 3.5–6.94 3.3–6.0 3.34–3.75 
   N 
Females             
   Mean 132.6 18.7 3.6 1.4 3.6 3.14 5.1 6.5 2.1 5.03 3.6 3.63 
   s.d. 10.8 n.a. 0.7 n.a. n.a. n.a. 0.7 n.a. n.a. 0.94 n.a. n.a. 
   Range 118–146.5 n.a. 2.8–4.4 n.a. n.a. n.a. 4.5–6.0 n.a. n.a. 4.0–6.1 n.a. n.a. 
   N 
All             
   Mean 137.4 65.5 3.6 1.32 2.9 2.92 5.4 6.1 1.6 5.24 4.1 3.57 
   s.d. 10.9 50.9 0.54 0.33 0.7 1.08 0.6 1.7 0.6 1.1 1.24 0.21 
   Range 118–153 18.7–119.7 2.85–4.4 0.9–1.7 2.0–3.6 1.88–4.33 4.5–6.3 4.5–8.2 1.0–2.1 3.5–6.86 3.3–6.0 3.34–3.75 
   N 12 10 10 

`Lever ratio' is the ratio of extracolumella length to extracolumella vertical width at its proximal end. P is the significance of the difference between the male and female samples, by two-tailed t-test for unequal variances. No differences were statistically significant, and the samples are pooled at the bottom of the table. TM, tympanic membrane, RA,rostrum–anus length

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