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Table 1.

Commonly measured parameters of the bullfrog middle ear

RA (mm)Mass (g)TM area (mm2)Footplate area (mm2)Area ratioOperculum area (mm2)
Males       
   Mean 136.7 233.4 161.8 3.44 47.6 4.84 
   s.d. 10.4 55.2 43.2 0.57 12.0 1.11 
   Range 115–155 140.7–311.1 101.1–260.0 2.4–4.32 26.2–66.6 3.03–6.86 
   N 20 19 20 20 20 19 
Females       
   Mean 133.2 195.2 87.0 3.3 26.6 4.85 
   s.d. 9.7 47.5 18.9 0.34 6.5 0.98 
   Range 118–146.5 123.8–275.5 60.8–127.1 2.79–3.9 18.3–36.7 2.86–6.1 
   N 15 13 15 15 15 11 
P (t-test) 0.313 0.051 <0.001 0.409 <0.001 0.980 
RA (mm)Mass (g)TM area (mm2)Footplate area (mm2)Area ratioOperculum area (mm2)
Males       
   Mean 136.7 233.4 161.8 3.44 47.6 4.84 
   s.d. 10.4 55.2 43.2 0.57 12.0 1.11 
   Range 115–155 140.7–311.1 101.1–260.0 2.4–4.32 26.2–66.6 3.03–6.86 
   N 20 19 20 20 20 19 
Females       
   Mean 133.2 195.2 87.0 3.3 26.6 4.85 
   s.d. 9.7 47.5 18.9 0.34 6.5 0.98 
   Range 118–146.5 123.8–275.5 60.8–127.1 2.79–3.9 18.3–36.7 2.86–6.1 
   N 15 13 15 15 15 11 
P (t-test) 0.313 0.051 <0.001 0.409 <0.001 0.980 

`Area ratio' is the ratio of the total tympanic membrane (TM) area to the columellar footplate area. P is the significance of the difference between the male and female samples, by two-tailed t-test for unequal variances. RA, rostrum–anus length

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