Table 2.

Descriptive statistics for measures of loading pattern variability



Metacarpus

Radius
Outdoor
Treadmill
Outdoor
Treadmill

Cranial
Caudal
Cranial
Caudal
Cranial
Caudal
Cranial
Caudal
N 
PR 60±10 75±15 10±1 17±5 64±17 51±7 14±4 11±3 
Average PR 69±10  14±3  57±8  12±2  
DIM 0.11±0.03 0.14±0.02 0.03±0.001 0.08±0.04 0.11±0.01 0.08±0.01 0.05±0.01 0.05±0.02 
Average DIM 0.12±0.02  0.06±0.03  0.09±0.01  0.05±0.01  
% in zone 72±20 53±19 74±26 51±28 81±7 94±2 95±2 98±2 
Average % 61.2±13.5  60.1±18.2  88.6±3.7  96.5±1.6  
TSO (deg.) 74±4 68±9 72±5 68±11 14±3 81±1 10±3 81±1 
FTSR 0.26±0.01 0.33±0.04 0.28±0.01 0.30±0.02 0.62±0.02 0.33±0.02 0.63±0.02 0.31±0.02 
Variance TSO (deg.) 12.5±9.4 15.4±6.7 0.98±0.002 11.1±10.3 18.5±3.8 11.6±3.0 1.0±0.36 3.1±1.6 
Variance FTSR
 
11.3±6.6
 
14.1±2.3
 
0.23±0.02
 
4.2±3.1
 
8.5±3.1
 
3.7±0.8
 
2.8±1.5
 
0.55±0.23
 


Metacarpus

Radius
Outdoor
Treadmill
Outdoor
Treadmill

Cranial
Caudal
Cranial
Caudal
Cranial
Caudal
Cranial
Caudal
N 
PR 60±10 75±15 10±1 17±5 64±17 51±7 14±4 11±3 
Average PR 69±10  14±3  57±8  12±2  
DIM 0.11±0.03 0.14±0.02 0.03±0.001 0.08±0.04 0.11±0.01 0.08±0.01 0.05±0.01 0.05±0.02 
Average DIM 0.12±0.02  0.06±0.03  0.09±0.01  0.05±0.01  
% in zone 72±20 53±19 74±26 51±28 81±7 94±2 95±2 98±2 
Average % 61.2±13.5  60.1±18.2  88.6±3.7  96.5±1.6  
TSO (deg.) 74±4 68±9 72±5 68±11 14±3 81±1 10±3 81±1 
FTSR 0.26±0.01 0.33±0.04 0.28±0.01 0.30±0.02 0.62±0.02 0.33±0.02 0.63±0.02 0.31±0.02 
Variance TSO (deg.) 12.5±9.4 15.4±6.7 0.98±0.002 11.1±10.3 18.5±3.8 11.6±3.0 1.0±0.36 3.1±1.6 
Variance FTSR
 
11.3±6.6
 
14.1±2.3
 
0.23±0.02
 
4.2±3.1
 
8.5±3.1
 
3.7±0.8
 
2.8±1.5
 
0.55±0.23
 

All values are means ± s.e.m.; N=number of individuals

Composite measures of variability: PR, participation ratio: DIM, distance to the Individual mean; % in zone refers to the proportion of footfalls that land in the expected loading zone for that surface (see Fig. 2A). The average PR, DIM and % in zone across the cranial and caudal surfaces are shown; indicates a significant difference between the metacarpus and radius

Separate measures of variability: TSO, tensile strain orientation; FTSR,fractional tensile strain ratio. Variance values for TSO and FTSR are multiplied by 103

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