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Table 1.

Estimated osmotic contribution of initial osmolytes in the hemolymph and osmolytes produced during slow cooling to –3°C in an environment at equilibrium with the vapor pressure of ice

Cryoprotective dehydration
ControlDay 14Day 6
Observed osmotic pressure of body fluids (mOsm) (N=6) 398±10 991±6 1392±16 
Total body water content (g H2O g–1 DM)(N=15) 2.67±0.05 1.99±0.06 1.63±0.03 
OAW content (g H2O g–1DM)* 2.19 1.55 1.22 
Loss of OAW (%) – 29.2 44.3 
Osmotic contribution of original solutes due to loss of OAW (mOsm) – 562 715 
Concentration of osmolytes (μg mg–1 DM) (N=5)    
   Glycerol ∼0 ∼0 ∼0 
   Sorbitol ∼0 ∼0 ∼0 
   Glucose 2.15±0.24 12.41±0.12 18.46±0.24 
   Trehalose 3.32±0.52 19.48±0.67 37.42±0.31 
Osmotic contribution of synthesized osmolytes(mOsm) – 67.2 155.9 
Total explainable osmotic pressure (%) – 63.5 62.6 
Cryoprotective dehydration
ControlDay 14Day 6
Observed osmotic pressure of body fluids (mOsm) (N=6) 398±10 991±6 1392±16 
Total body water content (g H2O g–1 DM)(N=15) 2.67±0.05 1.99±0.06 1.63±0.03 
OAW content (g H2O g–1DM)* 2.19 1.55 1.22 
Loss of OAW (%) – 29.2 44.3 
Osmotic contribution of original solutes due to loss of OAW (mOsm) – 562 715 
Concentration of osmolytes (μg mg–1 DM) (N=5)    
   Glycerol ∼0 ∼0 ∼0 
   Sorbitol ∼0 ∼0 ∼0 
   Glucose 2.15±0.24 12.41±0.12 18.46±0.24 
   Trehalose 3.32±0.52 19.48±0.67 37.42±0.31 
Osmotic contribution of synthesized osmolytes(mOsm) – 67.2 155.9 
Total explainable osmotic pressure (%) – 63.5 62.6 

OAW, osmotically active water; DM, dry mass

Values are mean ± s.e.m.

*

OAW was calculated from Worland et al.(Worland et al., 1998).[(OIW)=0.069(TBW) + 0.3, where OIW is osmotically inactive water content, TBW is total body water content and is the sum of OIW and OAW]

Assuming that osmolytes are dissolved in OAW

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