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Table 2.

Summary of kinematic variables in (A) ingroup and (B) outgroup taxa studied

A. ingroup taxa
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Scleropages jardinii
RakeChewStrikeRakeChewStrike
Magnitude       
   Cranial elevation (deg.) 22.41±1.62 7.79±1.38 14.50±3.10 13.05±1.45 6.01±2.52 11.26±4.57 
   Gape distance (mm) 1.57±0.25 14.70±0.72 19.13±0.86 0.81±0.17 5.56±1.01 10.23±1.74 
   Pectoral girdle retraction (mm) 7.51±0.34 2.53±0.50 3.47±0.80 4.07±0.51 1.86±0.64 1.57±0.91 
   Hyoid distance (mm) 1.30±0.20 12.19±0.50 14.98±1.12 1.28±0.21 6.48±0.93 5.34±1.18 
Timing (from t0      
   Max. cranial elevation (ms) 44.30±0.71 46.45±1.18 67.03±2.74 50.24±0.73 47.96±1.59 40.15±1.77 
   Max. gape distance (ms) 49.50±1.19 49.26±1.39 63.05±2.88 66.38±1.13 36.40±2.15 29.90±2.06 
   Max. pectoral girdle retraction (ms) 44.30±0.71 45.60±1.33 81.00±3.25 38.19±1.04 31.20±1.21 36.00±0.00 
   Hyoid distance (ms) 35.00±0.79 50.75±1.35 59.03±2.51 53.64±1.20 38.38±1.84 38.05±2.67 
A. ingroup taxa
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Scleropages jardinii
RakeChewStrikeRakeChewStrike
Magnitude       
   Cranial elevation (deg.) 22.41±1.62 7.79±1.38 14.50±3.10 13.05±1.45 6.01±2.52 11.26±4.57 
   Gape distance (mm) 1.57±0.25 14.70±0.72 19.13±0.86 0.81±0.17 5.56±1.01 10.23±1.74 
   Pectoral girdle retraction (mm) 7.51±0.34 2.53±0.50 3.47±0.80 4.07±0.51 1.86±0.64 1.57±0.91 
   Hyoid distance (mm) 1.30±0.20 12.19±0.50 14.98±1.12 1.28±0.21 6.48±0.93 5.34±1.18 
Timing (from t0      
   Max. cranial elevation (ms) 44.30±0.71 46.45±1.18 67.03±2.74 50.24±0.73 47.96±1.59 40.15±1.77 
   Max. gape distance (ms) 49.50±1.19 49.26±1.39 63.05±2.88 66.38±1.13 36.40±2.15 29.90±2.06 
   Max. pectoral girdle retraction (ms) 44.30±0.71 45.60±1.33 81.00±3.25 38.19±1.04 31.20±1.21 36.00±0.00 
   Hyoid distance (ms) 35.00±0.79 50.75±1.35 59.03±2.51 53.64±1.20 38.38±1.84 38.05±2.67 
B. outgroup taxa
Amia calva
Esox americanus
ChewStrikeChewStrike
Magnitude     
   Cranial elevation (deg.) 3.89±1.62 11.87±3.65 3.21±2.65 22.29±4.20 
   Gape distance (mm) 28.57±2.49 22.86±1.22 7.07±1.11 26.59±1.58 
   Pectoral girdle retraction (mm) 19.51±1.71 4.60±0.97 1.38±0.41 5.73±1.14 
   Hyoid distance (mm) 36.82±2.22 21.44±1.36 4.69±0.83 27.90±1.60 
Timing (from t0    
   Cranial elevation (ms) 64.82±2.17 70.22±2.69 125.87±3.90 73.42±2.65 
   Gape distance (ms) 82.90±2.63 63.47±2.92 102.22±3.42 63.88±2.97 
   Pectoral girdle retraction (ms) 88.80±2.51 78.20±3.14 90.67±4.05 75.40±3.03 
   Hyoid distance (ms) 89.18±2.66 64.73±2.77 119.90±3.68 70.44±3.02 
B. outgroup taxa
Amia calva
Esox americanus
ChewStrikeChewStrike
Magnitude     
   Cranial elevation (deg.) 3.89±1.62 11.87±3.65 3.21±2.65 22.29±4.20 
   Gape distance (mm) 28.57±2.49 22.86±1.22 7.07±1.11 26.59±1.58 
   Pectoral girdle retraction (mm) 19.51±1.71 4.60±0.97 1.38±0.41 5.73±1.14 
   Hyoid distance (mm) 36.82±2.22 21.44±1.36 4.69±0.83 27.90±1.60 
Timing (from t0    
   Cranial elevation (ms) 64.82±2.17 70.22±2.69 125.87±3.90 73.42±2.65 
   Gape distance (ms) 82.90±2.63 63.47±2.92 102.22±3.42 63.88±2.97 
   Pectoral girdle retraction (ms) 88.80±2.51 78.20±3.14 90.67±4.05 75.40±3.03 
   Hyoid distance (ms) 89.18±2.66 64.73±2.77 119.90±3.68 70.44±3.02 

Values are means ± s.e.m.

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